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  1. Content type: Research article

    A software based tool has been developed (Optem) to allow automatize the recommendations of the Canadian Multiple Sclerosis Working Group for optimizing MS treatment in order to avoid subjective interpretation.

    Authors: Juan Luís Ruiz-Peña, Pablo Duque and Guillermo Izquierdo

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2008 8:3

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  2. Content type: Research article

    The use of self-report measurements in clinical settings is increasing. However, in patients with limitations that interfere with reliable self-assessment such as cognitive impairment or mood disturbances, as ...

    Authors: Femke AH van der Linden, Jolijn J Kragt, Margarethe van Bon, Martin Klein, Alan J Thompson, Henk M van der Ploeg, Chris H Polman and Bernard MJ Uitdehaag

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2008 8:2

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Mutations in the genes PRKN and LRRK2 are the most frequent known genetic lesions among Parkinson's disease patients. We have previously reported that in the Portuguese population the LRRK2 c.6055G > A; p.G2019S ...

    Authors: Jose Bras, Rita Guerreiro, Maria Ribeiro, Ana Morgadinho, Cristina Januario, Margarida Dias, Ana Calado, Cristina Semedo, Catarina Oliveira, John Hardy and Andrew Singleton

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2008 8:1

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Complaints of unrefreshing sleep are a prominent component of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS); yet, polysomnographic studies have not consistently documented sleep abnormalities in CFS patients. We conducted th...

    Authors: Matthias Majer, James F Jones, Elizabeth R Unger, Laura Solomon Youngblood, Michael J Decker, Brian Gurbaxani, Christine Heim and William C Reeves

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:40

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  5. Content type: Study protocol

    Locomotor training using body weight support and a treadmill as a therapeutic modality for rehabilitation of walking post-stroke is being rapidly adopted into clinical practice. There is an urgent need for a w...

    Authors: Pamela W Duncan, Katherine J Sullivan, Andrea L Behrman, Stanley P Azen, Samuel S Wu, Stephen E Nadeau, Bruce H Dobkin, Dorian K Rose and Julie K Tilson

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:39

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  6. Content type: Research article

    The pathological processes underlying dementia are poorly understood and so are the markers which identify them. Carnosinase is a dipeptidase found almost exclusively in brain and serum. Carnosinase and its su...

    Authors: Cynthia M Balion, Carolyn Benson, Parminder S Raina, Alexandra Papaioannou, Christopher Patterson and Afisi S Ismaila

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:38

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Neuroserpin, primarily localized to CNS neurons, inhibits the adverse effects of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) on the neurovascular unit and has neuroprotective effects in animal models of ischemic s...

    Authors: John W Cole, Adam C Naj, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Oscar C Stine, John D Sorkin, Marcella A Wozniak, Barney J Stern, Manuel Yepes, Daniel A Lawrence, Laurie J Reinhart, Dudley K Strickland, Braxton D Mitchell and Steven J Kittner

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:37

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  8. Content type: Research article

    The presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (APLA) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients has been reported frequently but no clear relationship between APLA and the clinical and neuroimaging features of MS have ...

    Authors: Carlos J Bidot, Lawrence L Horstman, Wenche Jy, Joaquin J Jimenez, Carlos Bidot Jr, Yeon S Ahn, J Steven Alexander, Eduardo Gonzalez-Toledo, Roger E Kelley and Alireza Minagar

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:36

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) occur in dementia of the Alzheimer's type and diabetic microvascular disease. Accumulation of AGEs relates to risk factors for vascular dementia...

    Authors: Louise Southern, Jonathan Williams and Margaret M Esiri

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:35

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  10. Content type: Study protocol

    Mental practice as an additional cognitive therapy is getting increased attention in stroke rehabilitation. A systematic review shows some evidence that several techniques in which movements are rehearsed ment...

    Authors: Susy M Braun, Anna J Beurskens, Susanne M van Kroonenburgh, Jeroen Demarteau, Jos M Schols and Derick T Wade

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:34

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Interruption of flow through of cerebral blood vessels results in acute ischemic stroke. Subsequent breakdown of the blood brain barrier increases cerebral injury by the development of vasogenic edema and seco...

    Authors: Adviye Ergul, Mostafa M Elgebaly, Mary-Louise Middlemore, Weiguo Li, Hazem Elewa, Jeffrey A Switzer, Christiana Hall, Anna Kozak and Susan C Fagan

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:33

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  12. Content type: Research article

    There is a paucity of clinical studies focused specifically on intracerebral haemorrhages of subcortical topography, a subject matter of interest to clinicians involved in stroke management. This single centre...

    Authors: Adrià Arboix, Raquel Rodríguez-Aguilar, Montserrat Oliveres, Emili Comes, Luis García-Eroles and Joan Massons

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:32

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Assessment of subjective quality of life (QOL) of persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) could facilitate the detection of psychosocial aspects of disease that may otherwise go unrecognized. The objectives of th...

    Authors: Asmahan F Alshubaili, Abdel W Awadalla, Jude U Ohaeri and Asser A Mabrouk

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:31

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) can lead to an insidious decline in motor and sensory function in individuals even years after the initial injury and is accompanied by a slow and progressive cytoarchitectural...

    Authors: Milan Radojicic, Gabriel Nistor and Hans S Keirstead

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:30

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  15. Content type: Study protocol

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. As there is no definitive diagnostic test, its diagnosis is based on clinical criteria. Recently transcranial duplex scanning (TCD...

    Authors: Annemarie MM Vlaar, Angela EP Bouwmans, Marinus JPG van Kroonenburgh, Werner H Mess, Selma C Tromp, Piet GWM Wuisman, Alfons GH Kessels, Ania Winogrodzka and Wim EJ Weber

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:28

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. One of the most widely used techniques to diagnose PD is a Single Photon Emission Computer Tomography (SPECT) scan to visualise th...

    Authors: Annemarie MM Vlaar, Marinus JPG van Kroonenburgh, Alfons GH Kessels and Wim EJ Weber

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:27

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  17. Content type: Technical advance

    In 6-month anti-dementia drug trials, a 4-point change in the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-Cog) is held to be clinically important. We examined how this change compared with me...

    Authors: Kenneth Rockwood, Sherri Fay, Mary Gorman, Daniel Carver and Janice E Graham

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:26

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Occupational and chronic exposure to solvents and metals is considered a possible risk factor for Parkinson's disease and essential tremor. While manufacturing dental prostheses, dental technicians are exposed...

    Authors: Edito Fabrizio, Nicola Vanacore, Marcella Valente, Alfonso Rubino and Giuseppe Meco

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:24

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  19. Content type: Research article

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the temporal relationship between autonomic changes and pain activation in migraine and tension-type headache induced by stress in a model relevant for everyday off...

    Authors: Rune B Leistad, Trond Sand, Kristian B Nilsen, Rolf H Westgaard and Lars Jacob Stovner

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:23

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  20. Content type: Research article

    The Contact Heat Evoked Potential Stimulator (CHEPS) rapidly stimulates cutaneous small nerve fibres, and resulting evoked potentials can be recorded from the scalp. We have studied patients with symptoms of s...

    Authors: Duncan D Atherton, Paul Facer, Katherine M Roberts, V Peter Misra, Boris A Chizh, Chas Bountra and Praveen Anand

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:21

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of extracellular endopeptidases that degrade the extracellular matrix and other extracellular proteins. Studies in experimental animals demonstrate that MMPs play ...

    Authors: Armin Buss, Katrin Pech, Byron A Kakulas, Didier Martin, Jean Schoenen, Johannes Noth and Gary A Brook

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:17

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  22. Content type: Research article

    'MRI negative PET positive temporal lobe epilepsy' represents a substantial minority of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Clinicopathological and qualitative imaging differences from mesial temporal lobe epilepsy ...

    Authors: Ross P Carne, Terence J O'Brien, Christine J Kilpatrick, Lachlan R MacGregor, Lucas Litewka, Rodney J Hicks and Mark J Cook

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:16

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Many reports have described that there are fewer differences in AD brain neuropathologic lesions between AD patients and control subjects aged 80 years and older, as compared with the considerable differences ...

    Authors: Enzo Grossi, Massimo P Buscema, David Snowdon and Piero Antuono

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:15

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may be valuable for exploring protein markers for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The prospect of early detection and treatment, to slow progression, holds hope for aging p...

    Authors: Joung Wook Lee, Hong Namkoong, Hyun Kee Kim, Sanghee Kim, Dong Whi Hwang, Hae Ri Na, Seon-Ah Ha, Jae-Ryong Kim and Jin Woo Kim

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:14

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  25. Content type: Research article

    A few studies have investigated a possible relationship between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and occupations with extremely low frequency magnetic field (MF) exposure. The purpose of this study was to further eval...

    Authors: Zoreh Davanipour, Chiu-Chen Tseng, Pey-Jiuan Lee and Eugene Sobel

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:13

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) receptors expressed by primary sensory neurons mediate thermosensitivity, and may play a role in sensory pathophysiology. We previously reported that human dorsal root gangli...

    Authors: Paul Facer, Maria A Casula, Graham D Smith, Christopher D Benham, Iain P Chessell, Chas Bountra, Marco Sinisi, Rolfe Birch and Praveen Anand

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:11

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Brief screening tests have been developed to measure cognitive performance and dementia, yet they measure limited cognitive domains and often lack construct validity. Neuropsychological assessments, while comp...

    Authors: Valerie C Crooks, Thomas D Parsons and J Galen Buckwalter

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:10

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD) thus recently renamed, refers to a spectrum of heterogeneous conditions. This same heterogeneity of presentation represents the major methodological limit for the corre...

    Authors: Barbara Borroni, Mario Grassi, Chiara Agosti, Barbara Paghera, Antonella Alberici, Monica Di Luca, Daniela Perani and Alessandro Padovani

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:9

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Few studies have examined cognitive functioning of HIV positive patients in sub-Saharan Africa. It cannot be assumed that HIV positive patients in Africa exhibit the same declines as patients in high-resource ...

    Authors: Kevin R Robertson, Noeline Nakasujja, Matthew Wong, Seggane Musisi, Elly Katabira, Thomas D Parsons, Allan Ronald and Ned Sacktor

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:8

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  30. Content type: Research article

    There is an ongoing discussion about age limits for deep brain stimulation (DBS). Current indications for DBS are tremor-dominant disorders, Parkinson's disease, and dystonia. Electrode implantation for DBS wi...

    Authors: Jan Vesper, Susanne Haak, Christoph Ostertag and Guido Nikkhah

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:7

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  31. Content type: Study protocol

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS, also called myalgic encephalomyelitis/encephalopathy or ME) is a debilitating condition with no known cause or cure. Improvement may occur with medical care and additional therap...

    Authors: Peter D White, Michael C Sharpe, Trudie Chalder, Julia C DeCesare and Rebecca Walwyn

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:6

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  32. Content type: Research article

    As critical mediators of local and systemic inflammatory responses, cytokines are produced in the brain following ischaemic stroke. Some have been detected in the circulation of stroke patients, but their role...

    Authors: Hedley CA Emsley, Craig J Smith, Carole M Gavin, Rachel F Georgiou, Andy Vail, Elisa M Barberan, Karen Illingworth, Sylvia Scarth, Vijitha Wickramasinghe, Margaret E Hoadley, Nancy J Rothwell, Pippa J Tyrrell and Stephen J Hopkins

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:5

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  33. Content type: Case report

    Neuroacanthocytosis (NA) denotes a heterogeneous group of diseases that are characterized by nervous system abnormalities in association with acanthocytosis in the patients' blood. The 4.1R protein of the eryt...

    Authors: Antonio Orlacchio, Paolo Calabresi, Adriana Rum, Anna Tarzia, Anna Maria Salvati, Toshitaka Kawarai, Alessandro Stefani, Antonio Pisani, Giorgio Bernardi, Paolo Cianciulli and Patrizia Caprari

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:4

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Hereditary Inclusion Body Myopathy (HIBM) is an autosomal recessive, adult onset, non-inflammatory neuromuscular disorder with no effective treatment. The causative gene, GNE, codes for UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-...

    Authors: Susan Sparks, Goran Rakocevic, Galen Joe, Irini Manoli, Joseph Shrader, Michael Harris-Love, Barbara Sonies, Carla Ciccone, Heidi Dorward, Donna Krasnewich, Marjan Huizing, Marinos C Dalakas and William A Gahl

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:3

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  35. Content type: Case report

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors are rare tumor entities that originate from peripheral nerve sheaths and have an unfavorable prognosis. Metastatic spread to the cerebral parenchyma is absolutely rare....

    Authors: Johannes Tilgner, Klaus Müller, Nadir Ghanem, Johannes Lutterbach and Jan Vesper

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:2

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Intracranial haemorrhage accounts for 30–60 % of all stroke admissions into a hospital, with hypertension being the main risk factor. Presence of intraventricular haematoma is considered a poor prognostic fact...

    Authors: Yad Ram Yadav, Gaurav Mukerji, Ravikiran Shenoy, Abhijeet Basoor, Gaurav Jain and Adam Nelson

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:1

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Evidence for extra-motor involvement in non-demented patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has been provided by multiple studies, in particular neuropathological studies have demonstrated neuronal ...

    Authors: Elmar H Pinkhardt, Ludger Tebartz van Elst, Albert C Ludolph and Jan Kassubek

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2006 6:48

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder, characterized clinically by resting tremor, bradykinesia, postural instability and rigidity. The prevalence of PD is approximate...

    Authors: Hon-Chung Fung, Chiung-Mei Chen, John Hardy, Andrew B Singleton and Yih-Ru Wu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2006 6:47

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  39. Content type: Research article

    A minority of stroke patients is eligible for thrombolytic therapy. Small pilot case series have hinted that elevation of incident arterial blood pressure might be associated with a favorable prognosis either ...

    Authors: Tanya Bogoslovsky, Olli Häppölä, Oili Salonen and Perttu J Lindsberg

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2006 6:46

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  40. Content type: Case report

    Vestibular neuritis (VN) is commonly diagnosed by demonstration of unilateral vestibular failure, as unilateral loss of caloric response. As this test reflects the function of the superior part of the vestibul...

    Authors: Per Monstad, Siri Økstad and Åse Mygland

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2006 6:45

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  41. Content type: Research article

    A new locus for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis – frontotemporal dementia (ALS-FTD) has recently been ascribed to chromosome 9p.

    Authors: Parastoo Momeni, Jennifer Schymick, Shushant Jain, Mark R Cookson, Nigel J Cairns, Elisa Greggio, Matthew J Greenway, Stephen Berger, Stuart Pickering-Brown, Adriano Chiò, Hon Chung Fung, David M Holtzman, Edward D Huey, Eric M Wassermann, Jennifer Adamson, Michael L Hutton…

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2006 6:44

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  42. Content type: Research article

    One of the perceptual abnormalities observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) is a deficit in the suppression of reflexive saccades that are automatically triggered by the onset of a peripheral target. Impairment o...

    Authors: Jan Berend Deijen, Diederick Stoffers, Henk W Berendse, Erik Ch Wolters and Jan Theeuwes

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2006 6:43

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