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  1. Preclinical development encompasses the activities that link drug discovery in the laboratory to initiation of human clinical trials. Preclinical studies can be designed to identify a lead candidate from sever...

    Authors: Karen L Steinmetz and Edward G Spack
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9(Suppl 1):S2

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 9 Supplement 1

  2. The advent of early absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) screening has increased the attrition rate of weak drug candidates early in the drug-discovery process, and decreased t...

    Authors: Katya Tsaioun, Michel Bottlaender and Aloise Mabondzo
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9(Suppl 1):S1

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 9 Supplement 1

  3. Psychosis is rare in untreated patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) but the prevalence rises to 40% during dopaminergic treatment. So far, no systematic comparison of the psychogenic potential of different d...

    Authors: Daniel Ecker, Alexander Unrath, Jan Kassubek and Michael Sabolek
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:23
  4. S100B protein and Neuron Specific Enolase (NSE) can increase due to brain cell damage and/or increased permeability of the blood-brain-barrier. Elevation of these proteins has been shown after various neurolog...

    Authors: Barbara C van Munster, Catharina M Korse, Sophia E de Rooij, Johannes M Bonfrer, Aeilko H Zwinderman and Johanna C Korevaar
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:21
  5. To diagnose multiple sclerosis (MS), evidence for dissemination in space and time is required. There is no clear definition on how symptoms and signs of a patient indicate clinical dissemination in space. To p...

    Authors: Jessica M Nielsen, Christoph Pohl, Chris H Polman, Frederik Barkhof, Mark S Freedman, Gilles Edan, David H Miller, Lars Bauer, Rupert Sandbrink, Ludwig Kappos and Bernard MJ Uitdehaag
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:19

    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Neurology 2011 11:19

  6. There is growing evidence that inflammation plays an important role in atherogenesis. Previous studies show that C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory marker, is associated with stroke outcomes and future ...

    Authors: Titto T Idicula, Jan Brogger, Halvor Naess, Ulrike Waje-Andreassen and Lars Thomassen
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:18
  7. Hypertension is the most important single modifiable risk factor for stroke. We investigated the distribution of stroke risk factors and 10-year probability of stroke in Korean hypertensive patients.

    Authors: Cheol Ung Choi and Chang Gyu Park
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:16
  8. Moyamoya is a rare cerebrovascular disease of unknown etiology. The data on moyamoya disease from Pakistan is sparse. We report a case series of 13 patients who presented with moyamoya disease to a tertiary ca...

    Authors: Sana Shoukat, Ahmed Itrat, Ather M Taqui, Moazzam Zaidi and Ayeesha K Kamal
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:15
  9. Falls are common in stroke survivors returning home after rehabilitation, however there is currently a lack of evidence about preventing falls in this population. This paper describes the study protocol for th...

    Authors: Frances A Batchelor, Keith D Hill, Shylie F Mackintosh, Catherine M Said and Craig H Whitehead
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:14
  10. The determination of Intraepidermal Nerve Fiber Density (IENFD) in skin biopsy is a useful method for the evaluation of different types of peripheral neuropathies. To allow a reliable use of the method it is n...

    Authors: Sigrid Wöpking, Andrea Scherens, Ida S Haußleiter, Helmut Richter, Julia Schüning, Sabrina Klauenberg and Christoph Maier
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:13
  11. This study examined whether MS patients and proxy respondents agreed on change in disease impact, which was induced by treatment. This may be of interest in situations when patients suffer from limitations tha...

    Authors: Femke AH van der Linden, Jolijn J Kragt, Jeremy C Hobart, Martin Klein, Alan J Thompson, Henk M van der Ploeg, Chris H Polman and Bernard MJ Uitdehaag
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:12
  12. It has been reported that following rehabilitation, only 7% of stroke survivors are able to walk at a level commensurate with community participation. Previous research indicates that treadmill and overground ...

    Authors: Louise Ada, Catherine M Dean, Richard Lindley and Gemma Lloyd
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:8
  13. The objective was to identify separate cognitive domains in the standard assessment tools (MMSE, ADAS-Cog) and analyze the process of decline within domains during three years in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patie...

    Authors: Cecilia M Persson, Åsa K Wallin, Sten Levander and Lennart Minthon
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:7
  14. Few direct head-to-head comparisons have been conducted between drugs for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain (DPNP). Approved or recommended drugs in this indication include duloxetine (DLX)...

    Authors: Sibilia Quilici, Jeremy Chancellor, Mickael Löthgren, Dominique Simon, Gérard Said, Trong Kim Le, Ana Garcia-Cebrian and Brigitta Monz
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:6
  15. Traditional epidemiological studies do not allow elucidating the reality of referral and diagnosis patterns of dementia in routine clinical practice within a defined territory. This information is useful and n...

    Authors: Josep Garre-Olmo, Margarita Flaqué, Jordi Gich, Teresa Osuna Pulido, Josefina Turbau, Natalia Vallmajo, Marta Viñas and Secundí López-Pousa
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:5
  16. People with Parkinson's disease are twice as likely to be recurrent fallers compared to other older people. As these falls have devastating consequences, there is an urgent need to identify and test innovative...

    Authors: Colleen G Canning, Cathie Sherrington, Stephen R Lord, Victor SC Fung, Jacqueline CT Close, Mark D Latt, Kirsten Howard, Natalie E Allen, Sandra D O'Rourke and Susan M Murray
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:4
  17. Deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) in vessel walls of the brain as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) could be a major factor in the pathogenesis of dementia. Here we investigate the relationship between dementia and...

    Authors: Hannah AD Keage, Roxanna O Carare, Robert P Friedland, Paul G Ince, Seth Love, James A Nicoll, Stephen B Wharton, Roy O Weller and Carol Brayne
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:3
  18. Kinetic modeling using reference Logan is commonly used to analyze data obtained from dynamic Positron Emission Tomography (PET) studies on patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and healthy volunteers (HVs) u...

    Authors: Pasha Razifar, Anna Ringheim, Henry Engler, Håkan Hall and Bengt Långström
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:2
  19. Risk sharing schemes represent an innovative and important approach to the problems of rationing and achieving cost-effectiveness in high cost or controversial health interventions. This study aimed to assess ...

    Authors: Mark Pickin, Cindy L Cooper, Timothy Chater, Anthony O'Hagan, Keith R Abrams, Nicola J Cooper, Mike Boggild, Jackie Palace, George Ebers, James B Chilcott, Paul Tappenden and Jon Nicholl
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:1
  20. Cerebrovascular complications are severe events following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). This study aimed to observe the clinical and neuroimaging features and possible risk factors of in-hospital cer...

    Authors: Li Ling, Xiaoshun He, Jinsheng Zeng and Zhijian Liang
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2008 8:52

    The Retraction Note to this article has been published in BMC Neurology 2021 21:155

  21. Our purpose was to study the association between the intracranial atherosclerosis as measured by cavernous carotid artery calcification (ICAC) observed on head CT and atrophic changes of supra-tentorial brain ...

    Authors: S Erbay, R Han, M Aftab, Kelly H Zou, JF Polak and Rafeeque A Bhadelia
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2008 8:51
  22. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is associated with many cardiovascular and psychiatric diseases. Day-time sleepiness is a common consequence of sleep apnea and correlates with road-traffic accidents (RTA). Pakis...

    Authors: Fawad Taj, Zarmeneh Aly, Mahwash Kassi and Mansoor Ahmed
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2008 8:50
  23. Main claims of the literature are that functional recovery of the paretic upper limb is mainly defined within the first month post stroke and that rehabilitation services should preferably be applied intensive...

    Authors: Gert Kwakkel, Carel GM Meskers, Erwin E van Wegen, Guus J Lankhorst, Alexander CH Geurts, Annet A van Kuijk, Eline Lindeman, Anne Visser-Meily, Erwin de Vlugt and J Hans Arendzen
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2008 8:49
  24. Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) consists of a clinically and neuropathologically heterogeneous group of syndromes affecting the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain. Mutations in microtubule-associ...

    Authors: Anna-Lotta Kaivorinne, Johanna Krüger, Katja Kuivaniemi, Hannu Tuominen, Virpi Moilanen, Kari Majamaa and Anne M Remes
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2008 8:48
  25. Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, where most cases are sporadic with a late onset. In rare incidences familial forms of early-onset parkinsonism occur, and when recessively inher...

    Authors: Ronny Myhre, Stina Steinkjer, Alice Stormyr, Gina L Nilsen, Hiba Abu Zayyad, Khalid Horany, Mohamad K Nusier and Helge Klungland
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2008 8:47
  26. Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurological disorder resulting from a degeneration of dopamine producing cells in the substantia nigra. Clinical symptoms typically affect gait pattern and motor performan...

    Authors: Sean Ledger, Rose Galvin, Deirdre Lynch and Emma K Stokes
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2008 8:46
  27. Cardioembolic stroke generally results in more severe disability, since it typically has a larger ischemic area than the other types of ischemic stroke. However, it is difficult to differentiate cardioembolic ...

    Authors: Kazushi Yukiiri, Naohisa Hosomi, Takayuki Naya, Tsutomu Takahashi, Hiroyuki Ohkita, Mao Mukai, Hisashi Masugata, Koji Murao, Masaki Ueno, Takehiro Nakamura, Hiroaki Dobashi, Takanori Miki, Yasuhiro Kuroda and Masakazu Kohno
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2008 8:45
  28. A possible method of finding physiological markers of multiple sclerosis (MS) is the application of EEG quantification (QEEG) of brain activity when the subject is stressed by the demands of a cognitive task. ...

    Authors: Manuel Vazquez-Marrufo, Javier J Gonzalez-Rosa, Encarnacion Vaquero, Pablo Duque, Monica Borges, Carlos Gomez and Guillermo Izquierdo
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2008 8:44
  29. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus significantly improves motor function in patients with severe Parkinson's disease. However, the effects on nonmotor aspects remain uncertain. The present study...

    Authors: Iris Kaiser, Ilse Kryspin-Exner, Thomas Brücke, Dieter Volc and François Alesch
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2008 8:43
  30. Transcranial duplex sonography (TCD) of the substantia nigra has emerged as a promising, non-invasive tool to diagnose idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). However, its diagnostic accuracy in patients with un...

    Authors: Annemarie MM Vlaar, Tjerk de Nijs, Marinus JPG van Kroonenburgh, Werner H Mess, Ania Winogrodzka, Selma C Tromp and Wim EJ Weber
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2008 8:42
  31. We previously demonstrated improved sweating after enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in Fabry disease using the thermo-regularity sweat and quantitative sudomotor axon reflex tests. Skin-impedance, a measure sk...

    Authors: Surya N Gupta, Markus Ries, Gary J Murray, Jane M Quirk, Roscoe O Brady, Jeffrey R Lidicker, Raphael Schiffmann and David F Moore
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2008 8:41
  32. The treatment of Herpes-simplex-virus-encephalitis (HSVE) remains a major unsolved problem in Neurology. Current gold standard for therapy is acyclovir, a drug that inhibits viral replication. Despite antivira...

    Authors: Francisco Martinez-Torres, Sanjay Menon, Maria Pritsch, Norbert Victor, Ekkehart Jenetzky, Katrin Jensen, Eva Schielke, Erich Schmutzhard, Jan de Gans, Chin-Hee Chung, Steffen Luntz, Werner Hacke and Uta Meyding-Lamadé
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2008 8:40
  33. Prevalence of degenerative dementias and dementias associated with cerebrovascular disease is increasing. Dementia is one of the most significant public health problem. In recent years, the role of vascular ri...

    Authors: Manuel Fernández Martínez, Jessica Castro Flores, Susana Pérez de las Heras, Aitziber Mandaluniz Lekumberri, María Gordejuela Menocal and Juan José Zarranz Imirizaldu
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2008 8:39
  34. To reduce injection pain and improve satisfaction, a thinner (29-gauge [29G]), sharper (5-bevel) needle than the 27G/3-bevel needle used previously to inject interferon (IFN) beta-1a, 44 or 22 mcg subcutaneous...

    Authors: Amer Jaber, Gian B Bozzato, Lionel Vedrine, Wes A Prais, Julie Berube and Philippe E Laurent
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2008 8:38
  35. Detecting malingering or exaggeration of impairments in brain function after traumatic brain injury is of increasing importance in neuropsychological assessment. Lawyers involved in brain injury litigation cas...

    Authors: Jascha Rüsseler, Alexandra Brett, Ulrike Klaue, Michael Sailer and Thomas F Münte
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2008 8:37
  36. Considering the costs of multiple sclerosis (MS), it is crucial that the health-related services supplied are in accordance with needs as they are perceived by people with MS (PwMS). Satisfaction with care is ...

    Authors: Charlotte Ytterberg, Sverker Johansson, Kristina Gottberg, Lotta Widén Holmqvist and Lena von Koch
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2008 8:36
  37. Processing stimuli in one sensory modality is known to result in suppression of other sensory-specific cortices. Additionally, behavioral experiments suggest that the primary consequence of paying attention to...

    Authors: Jennifer L Mozolic, David Joyner, Christina E Hugenschmidt, Ann M Peiffer, Robert A Kraft, Joseph A Maldjian and Paul J Laurienti
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2008 8:35
  38. Delirium is a common disorder in the early phase of stroke. Given the presumed cholinergic deficiency in delirium, we tested treatment with the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor rivastigmine.

    Authors: Annemarie W Oldenbeuving, Paul LM de Kort, Ben PW Jansen, L Jaap Kappelle and Gerwin Roks
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2008 8:34
  39. Recent consensus guidelines recommend pregabalin as a first-tier treatment for painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). We evaluated the efficacy of pregabalin 600 mg/d (300 mg dosed BID) versus placebo f...

    Authors: Joseph C Arezzo, Julio Rosenstock, Linda LaMoreaux and Lynne Pauer
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2008 8:33
  40. Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) represents a clinically, pathologically and genetically heterogenous neurodegenerative disorder, often complicated by neurological signs such as motor neuron-related li...

    Authors: Agnes A Luty, John BJ Kwok, Elizabeth M Thompson, Peter Blumbergs, William S Brooks, Clement T Loy, Carol Dobson-Stone, Peter K Panegyres, Jane Hecker, Garth A Nicholson, Glenda M Halliday and Peter R Schofield
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2008 8:32
  41. Several studies have suggested that the specific stroke subtype may influence the presence of leukoaraiosis in patients with ischemic stroke. We investigated the association between stroke subtype and leukoara...

    Authors: Seung-Jae Lee, Joong-Seok Kim, Kwang-Soo Lee, Jae-Young An, Woojun Kim, Yeong-In Kim, Bum-Soo Kim and So-Lyung Jung
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2008 8:31

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