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  1. The burden of cerebrovascular disease in developing countries is rising sharply. The prevalence of established risk factors of stroke is exceptionally high in Pakistan. However, there is limited data on the bu...

    Authors: Ayeesha Kamran Kamal, Ahmed Itrat, Muhammed Murtaza, Maria Khan, Asif Rasheed, Amin Ali, Amna Akber, Zainab Akber, Naved Iqbal, Sana Shoukat, Farzin Majeed and Danish Saleheen
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:58
  2. About 80% of all stroke survivors have an upper limb paresis immediately after stroke, only about a third of whom (30 to 40%) regain some dexterity within six months following conventional treatment programs. ...

    Authors: A (Lex) EQ van Delden, C (Lieke) E Peper, Jaap Harlaar, Andreas Daffertshofer, Nienke I Zijp, Kirsten Nienhuys, Peter Koppe, Gert Kwakkel and Peter J Beek
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:57
  3. Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an idiopathic, severe, inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, that causes severe optic neuritis and myelitis attacks. Early discrimination between multi...

    Authors: Zeljka Petelin Gadze, Sanja Hajnsek, Silvio Basic, Davor Sporis, Goran Pavlisa and Sibila Nankovic
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:56
  4. This study describes the prevalence of dementia and major dementia subtypes in Spanish elderly.

    Authors: Jesús de Pedro-Cuesta, Javier Virués-Ortega, Saturio Vega, Manuel Seijo-Martínez, Pedro Saz, Fernanda Rodríguez, Angel Rodríguez-Laso, Ramón Reñé, Susana Pérez de las Heras, Raimundo Mateos, Pablo Martínez-Martín, José María Manubens, Ignacio Mahillo-Fernandez, Secundino López-Pousa, Antonio Lobo, Jordi Llinàs Reglà…
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:55
  5. Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against Interferon beta (IFNβ) are reported to be associated with poor clinical response to therapy in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. We aimed to quantify the contribution of ...

    Authors: Emilia Sbardella, Valentina Tomassini, Claudio Gasperini, Francesca Bellomi, Luca Ausili Cefaro, Vincenzo Brescia Morra, Guido Antonelli and Carlo Pozzilli
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:54
  6. This study aimed to explore the value of extended motor nerve conduction studies in patients with ulnar nerve entrapment at the elbow (UNE) in order to find the most sensitive and least time-consuming method. ...

    Authors: Kari Todnem, Ralf Peter Michler, Tony Eugen Wader, Morten Engstrøm and Trond Sand
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:52
  7. Apart from promoting physical recovery and assisting in activities of daily living, a major challenge in stroke rehabilitation is to minimize psychosocial morbidity and to promote the reintegration of stroke s...

    Authors: Janita PC Chau, David R Thompson, Sheila Twinn, Anne M Chang and Jean Woo
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:49
  8. 1) To report site-specific normative values by age, sex and educational level for four components of the 10/66 Dementia Research Group cognitive test battery; 2) to estimate the main and interactive effects of...

    Authors: Ana Luisa Sosa, Emiliano Albanese, Martin Prince, Daisy Acosta, Cleusa P Ferri, Mariella Guerra, Yueqin Huang, KS Jacob, Juan Llibre de Rodriguez, Aquiles Salas, Fang Yang, Ciro Gaona, AT Joteeshwaran, Guillermina Rodriguez, Gabriela Rojas de la Torre, Joseph D Williams…
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:48
  9. The number of individuals at risk for dementia will probably increase in ageing societies as will the array of preventive and therapeutic options, both however within limited economic resources. For economic a...

    Authors: Matthias W Riepe, Thomas Mittendorf, Hans Förstl, Lutz Frölich, Martin Haupt, Reiner Leidl, Christoph Vauth and Matthias Graf von der Schulenburg
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:47
  10. Pharmacological high-throughput screening (HTS) represents a powerful strategy for drug discovery in genetic diseases, particularly when the full spectrum of pathological dysfunctions remains unclear, such as ...

    Authors: Nadège Calmels, Hervé Seznec, Pascal Villa, Laurence Reutenauer, Marcel Hibert, Jacques Haiech, Pierre Rustin, Michel Koenig and Hélène Puccio
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:46
  11. Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an incurable, chronic, potentially progressive and unpredictable disease of the central nervous system. The disease produces a range of unpleasant and debilitating symptoms, which ca...

    Authors: Rona Moss-Morris, Laura Dennison, Lucy Yardley, Sabine Landau, Suzanne Roche, Paul McCrone and Trudie Chalder
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:45
  12. No large study has compared the yield of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with clinical examination in order to differentiate lacunar stroke from other stroke subtypes. This differentiation is important for gu...

    Authors: Halvor Naess, Jan C Brogger Jr, Titto Idicula, Ulrike Waje-Andreassen, Gunnar Moen and Lars Thomassen
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:44
  13. Most patients who suffer a stroke experience reduced walking competency and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). A key factor in effective stroke rehabilitation is intensive, task-specific training. Recent ...

    Authors: Ingrid GL van de Port, Lotte Wevers, Hanneke Roelse, Lenneke van Kats, Eline Lindeman and Gert Kwakkel
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:43
  14. Older adults with cognitive problems have a higher risk of falls, at least twice that of cognitively normal older adults. The consequences of falls in this population are very serious: fallers with cognitive p...

    Authors: Manuel Montero-Odasso, Jennie L Wells, Michael J Borrie and Mark Speechley
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:42
  15. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of positron emission tomography (PET) using F18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in the differential diagnosis of early-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) and oth...

    Authors: Peter K Panegyres, Jeffrey M Rogers, Michael McCarthy, Andrew Campbell and Jing Shan Wu
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:41
  16. Cervical artery dissection is a leading cause of cerebral ischemia in young adults. Morphological investigations have shown alterations in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of affected vessel walls. As matrix met...

    Authors: Armin Buss, Katrin Pech, Susanne Roelver, Brunhilde Bloemeke, Christoph Klotzsch and Sebastian Breuer
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:40
  17. Hemifacial atrophy (Parry-Romberg syndrome) is a relatively rare disease. The etiology of the disease is not clear. Some authors postulate its relation with limited scleroderma linearis. Linear scleroderma "en...

    Authors: Beata Bergler-Czop, Anna Lis-Święty and Ligia Brzezińska-Wcisło
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:39
  18. Stroke is the most common disabling neurological condition in adults. Falls and poor mobility are major contributors to stroke-related disability. Falls are more frequent and more likely to result in injury am...

    Authors: Catherine M Dean, Chris Rissel, Michelle Sharkey, Catherine Sherrington, Robert G Cumming, Ruth N Barker, Stephen R Lord, Sandra D O'Rourke and Catherine Kirkham
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:38
  19. Cerebral ischemia involves a series of reactions which ultimately influence the final volume of a brain infarction. We hypothesize that polymorphisms in genes encoding proteins involved in these reactions coul...

    Authors: Leema Reddy Peddareddygari, Ana Virginia Dutra, Mark A Levenstien, Souvik Sen and Raji P Grewal
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:37
  20. Carotid angioplasty with stenting is a relatively new, increasingly used, less-invasive treatment for the treatment of symptomatic carotid artery stenosis. It is being evaluated in ongoing and nearly finished ...

    Authors: Paul J Nederkoorn and Martin M Brown
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:36
  21. Previously published studies have reported that up to 43% of patients with disorders of consciousness are erroneously assigned a diagnosis of vegetative state (VS). However, no recent studies have investigated...

    Authors: Caroline Schnakers, Audrey Vanhaudenhuyse, Joseph Giacino, Manfredi Ventura, Melanie Boly, Steve Majerus, Gustave Moonen and Steven Laureys
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:35
  22. People with Multiple Sclerosis have a life long need for physiotherapy and exercise interventions due to the progressive nature of the disease and their greater risk of the complications of inactivity. The Mul...

    Authors: Susan Coote, Maria Garrett, Neasa Hogan, Aidan Larkin and Jean Saunders
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:34
  23. Although chemotherapy with procarbazine, lomustine and vincristine (PCV) is considered to be well tolerated, side effects frequently lead to dose reduction or even discontinuation of treatment of oligodendrogl...

    Authors: J Vesper, E Graf, C Wille, J Tilgner, M Trippel, G Nikkhah and CB Ostertag
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:33
  24. A major class of axon growth-repulsive molecules associated with CNS scar tissue is the family of chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs). Experimental spinal cord injury (SCI) has demonstrated rapid re-exp...

    Authors: Armin Buss, Katrin Pech, Byron A Kakulas, Didier Martin, Jean Schoenen, Johannes Noth and Gary A Brook
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:32
  25. Intracranial stenosis is the most common cause of stroke among Asians. It has a poor prognosis with a high rate of recurrence. No effective medical or surgical treatment modality has been developed for the tre...

    Authors: Ayeesha Kamran Kamal, Fawad Taj, Babar Junaidi, Asif Rasheed, Moazzam Zaidi, Muhammed Murtaza, Naved Iqbal, Fahad Hashmat, Syed Vaqas Alam, Uzma Saleem, Shahan Waheed, Lajpat Bansari, Nabi Shah, Maria Samuel, Madiha Yameen, Sobia Naz…
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:31
  26. Little is known about clinical features and prognosis of patients with ischaemic stroke caused by infarction in the territory of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA). This single centre, retrospective study was ...

    Authors: Adrià Arboix, Luis García-Eroles, Núria Sellarés, Agnès Raga, Montserrat Oliveres and Joan Massons
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:30
  27. Co-morbidities of vertiginous diseases have so far not been investigated systematically. Thus, it is still unclear whether the different vertigo syndromes (e.g. benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), Men...

    Authors: Jan C Warninghoff, Otmar Bayer, Uta Ferrari and Andreas Straube
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:29
  28. The extended tau haplotype (H1) that covers the entire human microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) gene has been implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD). Nevertheless, controversial results, such as two studie...

    Authors: Nikolaos Refenes, Juliane Bolbrinker, Georgios Tagaris, Antonio Orlacchio, Nikolaos Drakoulis and Reinhold Kreutz
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:26
  29. Preclinical development encompasses the activities that link drug discovery in the laboratory to initiation of human clinical trials. Preclinical studies can be designed to identify a lead candidate from sever...

    Authors: Karen L Steinmetz and Edward G Spack
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9(Suppl 1):S2

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 9 Supplement 1

  30. The advent of early absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) screening has increased the attrition rate of weak drug candidates early in the drug-discovery process, and decreased t...

    Authors: Katya Tsaioun, Michel Bottlaender and Aloise Mabondzo
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9(Suppl 1):S1

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 9 Supplement 1

  31. Psychosis is rare in untreated patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) but the prevalence rises to 40% during dopaminergic treatment. So far, no systematic comparison of the psychogenic potential of different d...

    Authors: Daniel Ecker, Alexander Unrath, Jan Kassubek and Michael Sabolek
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:23
  32. S100B protein and Neuron Specific Enolase (NSE) can increase due to brain cell damage and/or increased permeability of the blood-brain-barrier. Elevation of these proteins has been shown after various neurolog...

    Authors: Barbara C van Munster, Catharina M Korse, Sophia E de Rooij, Johannes M Bonfrer, Aeilko H Zwinderman and Johanna C Korevaar
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:21
  33. To diagnose multiple sclerosis (MS), evidence for dissemination in space and time is required. There is no clear definition on how symptoms and signs of a patient indicate clinical dissemination in space. To p...

    Authors: Jessica M Nielsen, Christoph Pohl, Chris H Polman, Frederik Barkhof, Mark S Freedman, Gilles Edan, David H Miller, Lars Bauer, Rupert Sandbrink, Ludwig Kappos and Bernard MJ Uitdehaag
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:19

    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Neurology 2011 11:19

  34. There is growing evidence that inflammation plays an important role in atherogenesis. Previous studies show that C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory marker, is associated with stroke outcomes and future ...

    Authors: Titto T Idicula, Jan Brogger, Halvor Naess, Ulrike Waje-Andreassen and Lars Thomassen
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:18
  35. Hypertension is the most important single modifiable risk factor for stroke. We investigated the distribution of stroke risk factors and 10-year probability of stroke in Korean hypertensive patients.

    Authors: Cheol Ung Choi and Chang Gyu Park
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:16
  36. Moyamoya is a rare cerebrovascular disease of unknown etiology. The data on moyamoya disease from Pakistan is sparse. We report a case series of 13 patients who presented with moyamoya disease to a tertiary ca...

    Authors: Sana Shoukat, Ahmed Itrat, Ather M Taqui, Moazzam Zaidi and Ayeesha K Kamal
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:15
  37. The determination of Intraepidermal Nerve Fiber Density (IENFD) in skin biopsy is a useful method for the evaluation of different types of peripheral neuropathies. To allow a reliable use of the method it is n...

    Authors: Sigrid Wöpking, Andrea Scherens, Ida S Haußleiter, Helmut Richter, Julia Schüning, Sabrina Klauenberg and Christoph Maier
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2009 9:13

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