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  1. Neuroleptic-induced movement disorders (NIMDs) have overlapping co-morbidity. Earlier studies have described typical clinical movement patterns for individual NIMDs. This study aimed to identify specific movem...

    Authors: Sven Janno, Matti M Holi, Katinka Tuisku and Kristian Wahlbeck
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2008 8:10
  2. The objective of this study was to analyze factors influencing the risk and timing of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in central Norway. The APOE ε4 allele is the only consistently identified risk factor for late onset ...

    Authors: Sigrid B Sando, Stacey Melquist, Ashley Cannon, Michael L Hutton, Olav Sletvold, Ingvild Saltvedt, Linda R White, Stian Lydersen and Jan O Aasly
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2008 8:9
  3. Recent pathological studies have suggested that thalamic degeneration may represent a site of non-dopaminergic degeneration in Parkinson's Disease (PD). Our objective was to determine if changes in the thalami...

    Authors: Martin J McKeown, Ashish Uthama, Rafeef Abugharbieh, Samantha Palmer, Mechelle Lewis and Xuemei Huang
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2008 8:8
  4. Over 50% of patients with upper limb paresis resulting from stroke face long-term impaired arm function and ensuing disability in daily life. Unfortunately, the number of effective treatments aimed at improvin...

    Authors: Jeanine A Verbunt, Henk AM Seelen, Feljandro P Ramos, Bernard HM Michielsen, Wim L Wetzelaer and Martine Moennekens
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2008 8:7
  5. Pesticides and correlated lifestyle factors (e.g., exposure to well-water and farming) are repeatedly reported risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD), but few family-based studies have examined these relati...

    Authors: Dana B Hancock, Eden R Martin, Gregory M Mayhew, Jeffrey M Stajich, Rita Jewett, Mark A Stacy, Burton L Scott, Jeffery M Vance and William K Scott
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2008 8:6
  6. In Spain, stroke is one of the major causes of death and the main cause of severe disability in people over 65 years. We analyzed the incidence of ischemic stroke, stroke subtypes, case fatality and disability...

    Authors: María Teresa Alzamora, Marta Sorribes, Antonio Heras, Nicolás Vila, Marisa Vicheto, Rosa Forés, José Sánchez-Ojanguren, Amparo Sancho and Guillem Pera
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2008 8:5
  7. The main objective of this study was to investigate the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) genotype as a possible risk factor for migraine (both with and without aura) compared to controls. We also wanted to exa...

    Authors: Erling Tronvik, Lars J Stovner, Gunnar Bovim, Linda R White, Amanda J Gladwin, Kathryn Owen and Harald Schrader
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2008 8:4
  8. A software based tool has been developed (Optem) to allow automatize the recommendations of the Canadian Multiple Sclerosis Working Group for optimizing MS treatment in order to avoid subjective interpretation.

    Authors: Juan Luís Ruiz-Peña, Pablo Duque and Guillermo Izquierdo
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2008 8:3
  9. The use of self-report measurements in clinical settings is increasing. However, in patients with limitations that interfere with reliable self-assessment such as cognitive impairment or mood disturbances, as ...

    Authors: Femke AH van der Linden, Jolijn J Kragt, Margarethe van Bon, Martin Klein, Alan J Thompson, Henk M van der Ploeg, Chris H Polman and Bernard MJ Uitdehaag
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2008 8:2
  10. Mutations in the genes PRKN and LRRK2 are the most frequent known genetic lesions among Parkinson's disease patients. We have previously reported that in the Portuguese population the LRRK2 c.6055G > A; p.G2019S ...

    Authors: Jose Bras, Rita Guerreiro, Maria Ribeiro, Ana Morgadinho, Cristina Januario, Margarida Dias, Ana Calado, Cristina Semedo, Catarina Oliveira, John Hardy and Andrew Singleton
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2008 8:1
  11. Complaints of unrefreshing sleep are a prominent component of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS); yet, polysomnographic studies have not consistently documented sleep abnormalities in CFS patients. We conducted th...

    Authors: Matthias Majer, James F Jones, Elizabeth R Unger, Laura Solomon Youngblood, Michael J Decker, Brian Gurbaxani, Christine Heim and William C Reeves
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:40
  12. Locomotor training using body weight support and a treadmill as a therapeutic modality for rehabilitation of walking post-stroke is being rapidly adopted into clinical practice. There is an urgent need for a w...

    Authors: Pamela W Duncan, Katherine J Sullivan, Andrea L Behrman, Stanley P Azen, Samuel S Wu, Stephen E Nadeau, Bruce H Dobkin, Dorian K Rose and Julie K Tilson
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:39
  13. The pathological processes underlying dementia are poorly understood and so are the markers which identify them. Carnosinase is a dipeptidase found almost exclusively in brain and serum. Carnosinase and its su...

    Authors: Cynthia M Balion, Carolyn Benson, Parminder S Raina, Alexandra Papaioannou, Christopher Patterson and Afisi S Ismaila
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:38
  14. Neuroserpin, primarily localized to CNS neurons, inhibits the adverse effects of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) on the neurovascular unit and has neuroprotective effects in animal models of ischemic s...

    Authors: John W Cole, Adam C Naj, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Oscar C Stine, John D Sorkin, Marcella A Wozniak, Barney J Stern, Manuel Yepes, Daniel A Lawrence, Laurie J Reinhart, Dudley K Strickland, Braxton D Mitchell and Steven J Kittner
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:37
  15. The presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (APLA) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients has been reported frequently but no clear relationship between APLA and the clinical and neuroimaging features of MS have ...

    Authors: Carlos J Bidot, Lawrence L Horstman, Wenche Jy, Joaquin J Jimenez, Carlos Bidot Jr, Yeon S Ahn, J Steven Alexander, Eduardo Gonzalez-Toledo, Roger E Kelley and Alireza Minagar
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:36
  16. Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) occur in dementia of the Alzheimer's type and diabetic microvascular disease. Accumulation of AGEs relates to risk factors for vascular dementia...

    Authors: Louise Southern, Jonathan Williams and Margaret M Esiri
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:35
  17. Mental practice as an additional cognitive therapy is getting increased attention in stroke rehabilitation. A systematic review shows some evidence that several techniques in which movements are rehearsed ment...

    Authors: Susy M Braun, Anna J Beurskens, Susanne M van Kroonenburgh, Jeroen Demarteau, Jos M Schols and Derick T Wade
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:34
  18. Interruption of flow through of cerebral blood vessels results in acute ischemic stroke. Subsequent breakdown of the blood brain barrier increases cerebral injury by the development of vasogenic edema and seco...

    Authors: Adviye Ergul, Mostafa M Elgebaly, Mary-Louise Middlemore, Weiguo Li, Hazem Elewa, Jeffrey A Switzer, Christiana Hall, Anna Kozak and Susan C Fagan
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:33
  19. There is a paucity of clinical studies focused specifically on intracerebral haemorrhages of subcortical topography, a subject matter of interest to clinicians involved in stroke management. This single centre...

    Authors: Adrià Arboix, Raquel Rodríguez-Aguilar, Montserrat Oliveres, Emili Comes, Luis García-Eroles and Joan Massons
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:32
  20. Assessment of subjective quality of life (QOL) of persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) could facilitate the detection of psychosocial aspects of disease that may otherwise go unrecognized. The objectives of th...

    Authors: Asmahan F Alshubaili, Abdel W Awadalla, Jude U Ohaeri and Asser A Mabrouk
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:31
  21. Chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) can lead to an insidious decline in motor and sensory function in individuals even years after the initial injury and is accompanied by a slow and progressive cytoarchitectural...

    Authors: Milan Radojicic, Gabriel Nistor and Hans S Keirstead
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:30
  22. Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. As there is no definitive diagnostic test, its diagnosis is based on clinical criteria. Recently transcranial duplex scanning (TCD...

    Authors: Annemarie MM Vlaar, Angela EP Bouwmans, Marinus JPG van Kroonenburgh, Werner H Mess, Selma C Tromp, Piet GWM Wuisman, Alfons GH Kessels, Ania Winogrodzka and Wim EJ Weber
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:28
  23. Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. One of the most widely used techniques to diagnose PD is a Single Photon Emission Computer Tomography (SPECT) scan to visualise th...

    Authors: Annemarie MM Vlaar, Marinus JPG van Kroonenburgh, Alfons GH Kessels and Wim EJ Weber
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:27
  24. In 6-month anti-dementia drug trials, a 4-point change in the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-Cog) is held to be clinically important. We examined how this change compared with me...

    Authors: Kenneth Rockwood, Sherri Fay, Mary Gorman, Daniel Carver and Janice E Graham
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:26
  25. Occupational and chronic exposure to solvents and metals is considered a possible risk factor for Parkinson's disease and essential tremor. While manufacturing dental prostheses, dental technicians are exposed...

    Authors: Edito Fabrizio, Nicola Vanacore, Marcella Valente, Alfonso Rubino and Giuseppe Meco
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:24
  26. The purpose of this study was to investigate the temporal relationship between autonomic changes and pain activation in migraine and tension-type headache induced by stress in a model relevant for everyday off...

    Authors: Rune B Leistad, Trond Sand, Kristian B Nilsen, Rolf H Westgaard and Lars Jacob Stovner
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:23
  27. The Contact Heat Evoked Potential Stimulator (CHEPS) rapidly stimulates cutaneous small nerve fibres, and resulting evoked potentials can be recorded from the scalp. We have studied patients with symptoms of s...

    Authors: Duncan D Atherton, Paul Facer, Katherine M Roberts, V Peter Misra, Boris A Chizh, Chas Bountra and Praveen Anand
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:21
  28. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of extracellular endopeptidases that degrade the extracellular matrix and other extracellular proteins. Studies in experimental animals demonstrate that MMPs play ...

    Authors: Armin Buss, Katrin Pech, Byron A Kakulas, Didier Martin, Jean Schoenen, Johannes Noth and Gary A Brook
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:17
  29. 'MRI negative PET positive temporal lobe epilepsy' represents a substantial minority of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Clinicopathological and qualitative imaging differences from mesial temporal lobe epilepsy ...

    Authors: Ross P Carne, Terence J O'Brien, Christine J Kilpatrick, Lachlan R MacGregor, Lucas Litewka, Rodney J Hicks and Mark J Cook
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:16
  30. Many reports have described that there are fewer differences in AD brain neuropathologic lesions between AD patients and control subjects aged 80 years and older, as compared with the considerable differences ...

    Authors: Enzo Grossi, Massimo P Buscema, David Snowdon and Piero Antuono
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:15
  31. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may be valuable for exploring protein markers for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The prospect of early detection and treatment, to slow progression, holds hope for aging p...

    Authors: Joung Wook Lee, Hong Namkoong, Hyun Kee Kim, Sanghee Kim, Dong Whi Hwang, Hae Ri Na, Seon-Ah Ha, Jae-Ryong Kim and Jin Woo Kim
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:14
  32. A few studies have investigated a possible relationship between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and occupations with extremely low frequency magnetic field (MF) exposure. The purpose of this study was to further eval...

    Authors: Zoreh Davanipour, Chiu-Chen Tseng, Pey-Jiuan Lee and Eugene Sobel
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:13
  33. Transient receptor potential (TRP) receptors expressed by primary sensory neurons mediate thermosensitivity, and may play a role in sensory pathophysiology. We previously reported that human dorsal root gangli...

    Authors: Paul Facer, Maria A Casula, Graham D Smith, Christopher D Benham, Iain P Chessell, Chas Bountra, Marco Sinisi, Rolfe Birch and Praveen Anand
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:11
  34. Brief screening tests have been developed to measure cognitive performance and dementia, yet they measure limited cognitive domains and often lack construct validity. Neuropsychological assessments, while comp...

    Authors: Valerie C Crooks, Thomas D Parsons and J Galen Buckwalter
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:10
  35. Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD) thus recently renamed, refers to a spectrum of heterogeneous conditions. This same heterogeneity of presentation represents the major methodological limit for the corre...

    Authors: Barbara Borroni, Mario Grassi, Chiara Agosti, Barbara Paghera, Antonella Alberici, Monica Di Luca, Daniela Perani and Alessandro Padovani
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:9
  36. Few studies have examined cognitive functioning of HIV positive patients in sub-Saharan Africa. It cannot be assumed that HIV positive patients in Africa exhibit the same declines as patients in high-resource ...

    Authors: Kevin R Robertson, Noeline Nakasujja, Matthew Wong, Seggane Musisi, Elly Katabira, Thomas D Parsons, Allan Ronald and Ned Sacktor
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:8
  37. There is an ongoing discussion about age limits for deep brain stimulation (DBS). Current indications for DBS are tremor-dominant disorders, Parkinson's disease, and dystonia. Electrode implantation for DBS wi...

    Authors: Jan Vesper, Susanne Haak, Christoph Ostertag and Guido Nikkhah
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:7
  38. Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS, also called myalgic encephalomyelitis/encephalopathy or ME) is a debilitating condition with no known cause or cure. Improvement may occur with medical care and additional therap...

    Authors: Peter D White, Michael C Sharpe, Trudie Chalder, Julia C DeCesare and Rebecca Walwyn
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:6
  39. As critical mediators of local and systemic inflammatory responses, cytokines are produced in the brain following ischaemic stroke. Some have been detected in the circulation of stroke patients, but their role...

    Authors: Hedley CA Emsley, Craig J Smith, Carole M Gavin, Rachel F Georgiou, Andy Vail, Elisa M Barberan, Karen Illingworth, Sylvia Scarth, Vijitha Wickramasinghe, Margaret E Hoadley, Nancy J Rothwell, Pippa J Tyrrell and Stephen J Hopkins
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:5
  40. Neuroacanthocytosis (NA) denotes a heterogeneous group of diseases that are characterized by nervous system abnormalities in association with acanthocytosis in the patients' blood. The 4.1R protein of the eryt...

    Authors: Antonio Orlacchio, Paolo Calabresi, Adriana Rum, Anna Tarzia, Anna Maria Salvati, Toshitaka Kawarai, Alessandro Stefani, Antonio Pisani, Giorgio Bernardi, Paolo Cianciulli and Patrizia Caprari
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:4
  41. Hereditary Inclusion Body Myopathy (HIBM) is an autosomal recessive, adult onset, non-inflammatory neuromuscular disorder with no effective treatment. The causative gene, GNE, codes for UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-...

    Authors: Susan Sparks, Goran Rakocevic, Galen Joe, Irini Manoli, Joseph Shrader, Michael Harris-Love, Barbara Sonies, Carla Ciccone, Heidi Dorward, Donna Krasnewich, Marjan Huizing, Marinos C Dalakas and William A Gahl
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:3
  42. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors are rare tumor entities that originate from peripheral nerve sheaths and have an unfavorable prognosis. Metastatic spread to the cerebral parenchyma is absolutely rare....

    Authors: Johannes Tilgner, Klaus Müller, Nadir Ghanem, Johannes Lutterbach and Jan Vesper
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:2
  43. Intracranial haemorrhage accounts for 30–60 % of all stroke admissions into a hospital, with hypertension being the main risk factor. Presence of intraventricular haematoma is considered a poor prognostic fact...

    Authors: Yad Ram Yadav, Gaurav Mukerji, Ravikiran Shenoy, Abhijeet Basoor, Gaurav Jain and Adam Nelson
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2007 7:1

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