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  1. Neurological disability progression occurs across the spectrum of people living with multiple sclerosis (MS). Although there are a handful of disease-modifying treatments approved for use in progressive phenot...

    Authors: Jiwon Oh, Nathalie Arbour, Fabrizio Giuliani, Melanie Guenette, Shannon Kolind, Larry Lynd, Ruth Ann Marrie, Luanne M. Metz, Scott B. Patten, Alexandre Prat, Alice Schabas, Penelope Smyth, Roger Tam, Anthony Traboulsee and V. Wee Yong

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:418

    Content type: Study protocol

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  2. Postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage represents a challenge even for experienced pituitary surgeons. We aimed to quantitatively synthesize data from studies regarding the risk factors for postoperat...

    Authors: Zhihuan Zhou, Feifei Zuo, Xiaoqun Chen, Qinqin Zhao, Mengna Luo, Xiaobing Jiang and Yuyu Duan

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:417

    Content type: Research

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  3. The objective of the current study is to evaluate the effects of phantom exercises on phantom limb pain, mobility status, and quality of life in lower limb amputees treated with mirror therapy and routine phys...

    Authors: Anna Zaheer, Arshad Nawaz Malik, Tahir Masood and Sahar Fatima

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:416

    Content type: Research

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  4. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Megumi Toko, Tomohiko Ohshita, Takashi Kurashige, Hiroyuki Morino, Kodai Kume, Hiroshi Yamashita, Gen Sobue, Yasushi Iwasaki, Jun Sone, Hideshi Kawakami and Hirofumi Maruyama

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:413

    Content type: Publisher Correction

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    The original article was published in BMC Neurology 2021 21:396

  5. Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is an immune-mediated disorder characterized by antibodies against the GluN1 subunit of the NMDA receptor that is increasingly recognized as a treatable cause of childhood epile...

    Authors: Ryan M. Nillo, Iris J. Broce, Besim Uzgil, Nilika S. Singhal, Christine M. Glastonbury, Christopher P. Hess, James A. Barkovich, Rahul S. Desikan and Leo P. Sugrue

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:412

    Content type: Case report

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  6. Cerebral fat embolism (CFE) is a subtype of fat embolism syndrome which tends to cause ischemic cerebral infarction. Fat embolism in the cerebral venous system have not been reported. We hereby present a rare ...

    Authors: Wei Dong, Ding-yuan Wan, Xiang Yang, Min Fu, Xing Liu, Hao Li and Xiao-qi Xie

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:411

    Content type: Case report

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  7. When use of a single antiseizure medication (ASM) fails to induce seizure remission, add-on therapy is justified. Perampanel (PER) is approved in Europe as adjunctive therapy for focal, focal to bilateral toni...

    Authors: Paolo Bonanni, Antonio Gambardella, Paolo Tinuper, Benedetto Acone, Emilio Perucca and Giangennaro Coppola

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:410

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Insulin resistance was reported to increase the risk of ischemic stroke, which can be assessed by the triglyceride glucose (TyG) index. However, it remains unclear whether the TyG index influences the platelet...

    Authors: Yinping Guo, Jing Zhao, Yi Zhang, Lingshan Wu, Zhiyuan Yu, Dan He, Hao Huang, Wensheng Qu and Xiang Luo

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:409

    Content type: Research

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  9. Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNSs) are broad-spectrum disorders that can affect any part of the nervous system varying in core symptoms. Onconeural antibodies, including Hu, Yo, Ri, anti-CV2, amphiph...

    Authors: Jia Song, Ying Zhang, Yue Lang, Yi-Heng Wang, Jie Shao and Li Cui

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:408

    Content type: Case report

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  10. A recent study showed that 60–s paranasal air suction results in an immediate pain relief in acute migraine. This is the study to assess the Nitric Oxide (NO) and Carbon Monoxide (CO) concentration in nasal-pa...

    Authors: S. M. R. Bandara, S. Samita, A. M. Kiridana and H. M. M. T. B. Herath

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:407

    Content type: Research

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  11. Compared with typical bulbar onset amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), isolated bulbar palsy (IBP), an often under-understood variant of ALS, is characterized by symptoms confined to bulbar region for extende...

    Authors: Huagang Zhang, Lu Chen, Jinzhou Tian and Dongsheng Fan

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:405

    Content type: Research

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  12. Lower prognostic nutritional index (PNI) is related to the poor prognosis of cardiovascular diseases. However, little is known about PNI and its relationship with the prognosis of cerebral venous sinus thrombo...

    Authors: Jiawei Zhao, Kai Liu, Shen Li, Yuan Gao, Lu Zhao, Hongbing Liu, Hui Fang, Jun Wu, Shilei Sun, Yusheng Li, Bo Song and Yuming Xu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:404

    Content type: Research

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  13. The importance of evaluating the pulpal threshold to electrical stimulation, as a side effect of probable neuropathy in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients is a novel issue. This study aimed to investigate electr...

    Authors: Fatemeh Owlia, Nazanin Mahmoudzade, Jalil Modaresi and Marzieh Abutorabi Zarchi

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:403

    Content type: Research

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  14. Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is a group of inherited peripheral neuropathies, which are subdivided into demyelinating and axonal forms. Biallelic mutations in POLR3B are the well-established cause of hypomye...

    Authors: Yan-Yan Xue, Hao-Ling Cheng, Hai-Lin Dong, Hou-Min Yin, Yun Yuan, Ling-Chao Meng, Zhi-Ying Wu and Hao Yu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:402

    Content type: Case report

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  15. Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a burdensome, chronic and autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. We aimed to report the incidence, prevalence, mortality, and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) of MS ...

    Authors: Nima Fattahi, Sahar Saeedi Moghaddam, Farnam Mohebi, Negar Rezaei, Masoud Masinaei, Sahar Mohammadi Fateh, Elham Soleymani Hassanlouei, Farhad Manoochehri, Eghbal Fattahi, Mohammad Ali Sahraian, Maziar Moradi-lakeh, Ali H. Mokdad, Mohsen Naghavi and Farshad Farzadfar

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:400

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Hypereosinophilia (HE) is caused by various conditions, including solid and hematologic tumors. Nonetheless, there exist no reports on cerebral infarctions caused by HE associated with lung cancer metastasis t...

    Authors: Maki Ozaki, Tomoo Mano, Nobuyuki Eura, Kazuhide Horimoto, Masato Takano, Chiho Ohbayashi and Kazuma Sugie

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:397

    Content type: Case report

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  17. Both fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) and late-onset neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID) show CGG/GGC trinucleotide repeat expansions. Differentiating these diseases are difficult...

    Authors: Megumi Toko, Tomohiko Ohshita, Takashi Kurashige, Hiroyuki Morino, Kodai Kume, Hiroshi Yamashita, Gen Sobue, Yasushi Iwasaki, Jun Sone, Hideshi Kawakami and Hirofumi Maruyama

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:396

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

    The Publisher Correction to this article has been published in BMC Neurology 2021 21:413

  18. Transverse myelitis (TM) is a relatively uncommon condition, and vaccine-associated myelitis is even rarer. Concern regarding neurological complications following vaccination escalated following the report of ...

    Authors: Wee Yong Tan, Abdul Hanif Khan Yusof Khan, Mohd Naim Mohd Yaakob, Anna Misyail Abdul Rashid, Wei Chao Loh, Janudin Baharin, Azliza Ibrahim, Mohd Redzuan Ismail, Liyana Najwa Inche Mat, Wan Aliaa Wan Sulaiman, Hamidon Basri and Fan Kee Hoo

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:395

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  19. Persistent postural-perceptual dizziness (PPPD) is the most common functional vestibular disorder. A multisensory mismatch altered by psychological influences is considered to be an important pathophysiologica...

    Authors: Sebastian Wurthmann, Dagny Holle, Mark Obermann, Miriam Roesner, Michael Nsaka, Armin Scheffler, Christoph Kleinschnitz and Steffen Naegel

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:394

    Content type: Research

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  20. Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder with defective DNA nucleotide excision repair and associated with a high frequency of skin cancer. Approximately 25% of patients develo...

    Authors: Tanya J. Lehky, Paul Sackstein, Deborah Tamura, Martha Quezado, Tianxia Wu, Sikandar G. Khan, Nicholas J. Patronas, Edythe Wiggs, Carmen C. Brewer, John J. DiGiovanna and Kenneth H. Kraemer

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:393

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) is an infrequent and fatal infectious disease worldwide. Antemortem diagnosis in this condition is very difficult because clinical manifestations and neuroimaging are n...

    Authors: Shota Hirakata, Yusuke Sakiyama, Akiko Yoshimura, Mei Ikeda, Katsunori Takahata, Yuichi Tashiro, Michiyoshi Yoshimura, Hitoshi Arata, Hajime Yonezawa, Mari Kirishima, Michiyo Higashi, Miho Hatanaka, Takuro Kanekura, Kenji Yagita, Eiji Matsuura and Hiroshi Takashima

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:392

    Content type: Case report

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  22. With the increasing production and use of ethylene oxide (EO) worldwide, its explicit bio-toxicity has drawn more and more attention. At present, most studies focus on chronic EO exposure. Studies on acute EO ...

    Authors: Bin Lin, Chao Wang, Nan Lu, Le Zhang and Biao Jiang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:391

    Content type: Case report

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  23. Persons with MS (PwMS) are frequently affected by fatigue and depression. Mindfulness-based interventions may reduce these symptoms in PwMS and consequently their application has been extended to various setti...

    Authors: Torsten Sauder, Sascha Hansen, Carina Bauswein, Roy Müller, Sonja Jaruszowic, Jana Keune, Thomas Schenk, Patrick Oschmann and Philipp M. Keune

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:390

    Content type: Research

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  24. To investigate the relationship between the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and prognosis after the first attack of optic neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD).

    Authors: Haojie Xie, Yi Zhao, Chunyang Pan, Jinwei Zhang, Yongyan Zhou, Yanfei Li, Ranran Duan, Yaobing Yao, Zhe Gong, Junfang Teng and Yanjie Jia

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:389

    Content type: Research

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  25. Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease involving the neuromuscular junction. Myasthenic crisis (MC), which is characterized by respiratory failure and the requirement of mechanical ventilation in pati...

    Authors: Che-Wei Hsu, Nai-Ching Chen, Wei-Chin Huang, Hui-Chen Lin, Wan-Chen Tsai, Chih-Cheng Huang, Ben-Chung Cheng and Nai-Wen Tsai

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:388

    Content type: Research

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  26. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) plays a role in neuronal survival and development, and has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. We sought to examine the associations of the CSF HGF with Alzheimer’s di...

    Authors: Li-Jing Zhao, Zuo-Teng Wang, Ya-Hui Ma, Wei Zhang, Qiang Dong, Jin-Tai Yu and Lan Tan

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:387

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is clinical-neuroradiologically defined and potentially reversible, so there are limited data about histopathological findings. We aimed to describe the clin...

    Authors: Fatme Seval Ismail, Johannes van de Nes and Ilka Kleffner

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:386

    Content type: Research

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  28. Large artery atherosclerotic disease is an important cause of stroke, accounting for 15–46% of ischaemic strokes in population-based studies. Therefore, current guidelines from west recommend urgent carotid im...

    Authors: K. C. D. Mettananda, M. D. P. Eshani, L. M. Wettasinghe, S. Somaratne, Y. P. Nanayakkkara, W. Sathkorala, A. Upasena, C. Sirigampola, P. M. Y. Tilakaratna, A. Pathmeswaran and U. K. Ranawaka

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:385

    Content type: Research

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  29. The underlying pathogenesis of cerebral palsy (CP) remains poorly understood. The possibility of an early inflammatory response after acute insult is of increasing interest. Patterns of inflammatory and relate...

    Authors: Cory J. Goracke-Postle, Chantel C. Burkitt, Angela Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Michael Ehrhardt, George L. Wilcox, Patrick Graupman, Michael Partington and Frank J. Symons

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:384

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Fasting C-peptide (FCP) has been shown to play an important role in the pathophysiology of mood disorders including depression and schizophrenia, but it is unknown whether it also predicts post-stroke depressi...

    Authors: Yanyan Wang, Wenzhe Sun, Jinfeng Miao, Xiuli Qiu, Yan Lan, Chensheng Pan, Guo Li, Xin Zhao, Zhou Zhu and Suiqiang Zhu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:383

    Content type: Research

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  31. The genetics of cerebellar ataxia is complex. Hundreds of causative genes have been identified, but only a few cause more than single cases. The spectrum of ataxia-causing genes differs considerably between po...

    Authors: Joonas Lipponen, Seppo Helisalmi, Joose Raivo, Ari Siitonen, Hiroshi Doi, Harri Rusanen, Maria Lehtilahti, Mervi Ryytty, Markku Laakso, Fumiaki Tanaka, Kari Majamaa and Laura Kytövuori

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:382

    Content type: Research

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  32. Evidence indicates that inflammatory processes are involved in radicular pain as well as in resorption of herniated disc tissue. Furthermore there are indications that the presence of vertebral end plate patho...

    Authors: Niek Djuric, Geraldine Lafeber, Sjoerd G. van Duinen, Sandra Bernards, Wilco C. Peul and Carmen L. A. Vleggeert-Lankamp

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:379

    Content type: Study protocol

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  33. The implementation of condition-specific falls prevention interventions is proving challenging due to lack of critical mass and resources. Given the similarities in falls risk factors across stroke, Parkinson’...

    Authors: Nicola O’Malley, Amanda M. Clifford, Mairéad Conneely, Bláthín Casey and Susan Coote

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:378

    Content type: Research

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  34. The effect of atrial fibrillation (AF) on outcomes of endovascular treatment (EVT) for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is controversial. This study aimed to investigate the association of AF with outcomes after EV...

    Authors: Xu Tong, Shijing Li, Wei Liu, Zeguang Ren, Raynald Liu, Baixue Jia, Xuelei Zhang, Xiaochuan Huo, Gang Luo, Gaoting Ma, Anxin Wang, Yilong Wang, Yongjun Wang, Zhongrong Miao and Dapeng Mo

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:377

    Content type: Research

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  35. To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Brain Injury Screening Tool (BIST) symptom scale in a sample of people with a mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) through Rasch analysis, and to obtain an interval...

    Authors: Nusratnaaz Shaikh, Alice Theadom, Richard Siegert, Natalie Hardaker, Doug King and Patria Hume

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:376

    Content type: Research

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  36. The American Heart Association/ American Stroke Association and the Chinese Stroke Association guidelines are recommending intravenous alteplase intervention before endovascular thrombectomy if patients are el...

    Authors: Ruodong Han, Bowen Li, Yajie Yue, Guozhu Wu and Xiuxia Yan

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:375

    Content type: Research

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  37. Paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes (PNS) are rare, however, are important to recognize as oftentimes they precede the detection of an occult malignancy. Our case highlights a rare circumstance of paraneoplast...

    Authors: Meshari Alsaeed, Chloe A. R. Lim, Alyson Plecash and Tychicus Chen

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:374

    Content type: Case report

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  38. The prognostic value of serum bilirubin in stroke is controversial, since bilirubin has both neuroprotective and neurotoxic properties. We aimed to investigate the association between serum bilirubin, includin...

    Authors: Quping Ouyang, Anxin Wang, Xue Tian, Yingting Zuo, Zhimeng Liu, Qin Xu, Xia Meng, Pan Chen, Hao Li and Yongjun Wang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:373

    Content type: Research

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  39. Dystrophinopathy, a common neuromuscular disorder, includes Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD). Many researches are currently ongoing to develop curative approaches, which re...

    Authors: Liang Wang, Min Xu, Dawei Liu, Yingyin Liang, Pinning Feng, Huan Li, Yuling Zhu, Ruojie He, Jinfu Lin, Huili Zhang, Ziyu Liao and Cheng Zhang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:372

    Content type: Research

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  40. Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is a rare autoimmune disorder of neuromuscular transmission. The objective was to examine the efficacy and safety of 3,4-diaminopyridine (3,4-DAP) in patients with LEMS.

    Authors: Na Zhang, Daojun Hong, Taohui Ouyang, Wei Meng, Jingwei Huang, Meihua Li and Tao Hong

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:371

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  41. Ischemic stroke is a disease with high rate of death and disability worldwide. CircRNAs, as a novel type of non-coding RNAs, lacking 5’ caps and 3’ poly-A tails, has been associated with ischemic stroke. This ...

    Authors: Duncan Wei, Jian Chen, Xiaopu Chen, Shaoyan Wu, Zhaolin Chen, Yinting Huang, Zibin Shen and Wenzhen He

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:370

    Content type: Research

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  42. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been reported to treat muscle spasticity in post-stroke patients. The purpose of this study was to explore whether combined low-frequency rTMS (LF-rTMS) ...

    Authors: Dawei Li, Aixia Cheng, Zhiyou Zhang, Yuqian Sun and Yingchun Liu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:369

    Content type: Research

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