This article has Open Peer Review reports available.
Hashimoto’s encephalopathy cases: Chinese experience
© Tang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012
Received: 22 September 2011
Accepted: 10 July 2012
Published: 24 July 2012
Hashimoto’s encephalopathy is a poorly understood syndrome consisting of heterogeneous neurological symptoms and high serum antithyroid antibody titers, typically responding to steroids. More clinical series studies are required to characterize the clinical, laboratory and imaging features, and outcomes, especially in the Chinese population.
We analyzed the clinical, laboratory, and imaging features and outcomes of thirteen consecutive patients with Hashimoto’s encephalopathy diagnosed in Xuan Wu Hospital, Beijing from 2005 to 2010 retrospectively.
Cognitive impairment (84.6%) and psychiatric symptoms (38.5%) were the most frequent symptoms. Seizures (30.8%) and myoclonus (7.7%) were less common than previously described. Three (23.1%) patients showed abnormal signals in hippocampus or temporal lobe, which were believed related to their memory disorders or seizures. MRI changes showed resolution paralleling clinical improvement in one patient. Among eight patients who received steroid therapy, five patients recovered, one patient improved with residual deficits, and two patients relapsed or had no effect. Among five non-steroid treated patients, three patients experienced stable remission with antiepileptic drugs or general neurotrophic therapy, and two patients experienced continuous deterioration.
Most patients with Hashimoto’s encephalopathy showed good response to steroids. Some patients improved without steroid therapy. Considering its reversible course, we recommend that Hashimoto’s encephalopathy should always be in the differential diagnosis while evaluating disorders of the central nervous system.
Hashimoto’s encephalopathy (HE), also known as steroid-responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis (SREAT) , is a rare neurological syndrome that is poorly understood and often misdiagnosed. The first case was described by Lord Brain in 1966, in which a patient with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) showed impairment of consciousness, tremor, cognitive loss and stroke-like episodes . The clinical manifestations of HE include cognitive impairment, transient aphasia, tremor, myoclonus, ataxia, seizure, sleep disturbance and headache, with fluctuating symptoms in 95% of patients . Two subtypes were proposed: a vasculitic type with stroke-like episodes and a diffuse, progressive type with insidious onset but progressive deterioration of mental functions . HE is generally considered to be an autoimmune encephalopathy. However, the pathogenesis is still not clear. Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab), present in almost all HE cases , can also be found in general population with euthyroid status . A direct causal relationship between thyroid antibodies and HE seems unlikely .
The first set of diagnostic criteria for HE was put forward by Peschen-Rosin and co-workers in 1999, which encompassed unexplained episodes of relapsing myocloni, generalized seizures, focal neurological deficits or psychiatric disorders, and at least 3 of the following: abnormal EEG, elevated thyroid antibodies, elevated CSF protein and/or oligoclonal bands, excellent response to steroids, unrevealing cerebral MRI . After that, the knowledge of symptoms of HE was much more widened. Good steroid response was not observed in all HE patients [7–10]. Although the role in the pathogenesis of HE is still debated, it can’t be ignored that the elevation of anti-thyroid antibodies was observed in all HE patients. Therefore, the following principles were included in the diagnostic criteria by majority of researchers [1, 7, 8]: the elevated serum antithyroid antibodies; neurological illness mostly presented as clouding of consciousness, cognitive impairment, seizures, myoclonus, ataxia, psychiatric symptoms and focal neurological deficits; exclusion of infectious, toxic, metabolic, vascular or neoplastic etiologies.
Because of the low prevalence (about 2.1/100 000) , varied clinical features, unclear pathogenesis and histopathologic characteristics [1, 8, 12], currently no recognized diagnostic criteria for HE have been established. Therefore, more clinical series studies are required to characterize the clinical, laboratory and imaging features, and outcomes of HE patients. To our knowledge, there has been no published series report of HE from Asia yet. In this study, we try to characterize the clinical features and outcomes of a series of Chinese HE cases in whom the diagnosis of HE was made at Xuan Wu Hospital (in Beijing) between 2005 and 2010. The inclusion criteria for this study are: (1) encephalopathy manifested by clouding of consciousness, cognitive impairment, seizures or neuropsychiatric features; (2) elevated anti-TPO antibody with euthyroid status (serum sensitive thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], 0.35–5.5 uIU/ml); (3) no alternative infectious, toxic, metabolic, vascular or neoplastic etiology related to the neurological symptoms in blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or neuroimaging examinations.
This retrospective study received approval from the Xuan Wu Hospital institutional review board. We searched the electronic medical record system to identify and review patients diagnosed with HE at Xuan Wu Hospital (in Beijing) between 2005 and 2010, using the following criteria: (1) encephalopathy manifested by clouding of consciousness, cognitive impairment, seizures or neuropsychiatric features; (2) elevated anti-TPO antibody with euthyroid status (serum sensitive thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], 0.35–5.5 uIU/ml); (3) no alternative infectious, toxic, metabolic, vascular or neoplastic etiology related to the neurological symptoms in blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or neuroimaging examinations. We did not include steroid response as a criterion because not all HE patients respond to corticosteroid therapy [7, 8, 10]. Second, corticosteroids were not the standard therapy for HE in our institution before 2008, and some patients were unwilling to take the risks of steroid therapy. These patients provided the opportunity to observe the clinical course of HE without steroid therapy. Furthermore, elevated serum anti-TPO antibody was included as a diagnostic criterion for its much higher prevalence in HE patients than anti-thyroglobulin (anti-TG) antibody [1, 4, 8].
After identification of patients, demographic, clinical, laboratory, imaging data and treatment responses were collected. Furthermore, we followed up all patients and present the long-term clinical course of HE.
Demographic and clinical data
Clinical findings and treatment outcomes of 13 patients with Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy
Antibodies, U/ml (before treatment)
Antibodies, U/ml (after treatment)
Follow-up period (month)
Memory impairment, psychiatric symptoms, insomnia
No further seizures
Recurrent stroke-like episodes, multiple cognitive domains impairment, psychiatric symptoms
Intravenous methylprednisolone 500 mg for 3 d followed by oral prednisone taper
Two stroke-like episodes
Nerve growth factor, vitamin B12
Return to normal cognitive function, MMSE, 30
Memory impairment, psychiatric symptoms, aphasia, seizures, myoclonus
Intravenous methylprednisolone 1 g for 5 d
Stroke-like episode, multiple cognitive domains impairment, hypersomnolence, headache
Intravenous methylprednisolone 1 g for 5 d followed by oral prednisone taper
Complete remission, no further stroke-like episode
Acute headache, multiple cognitive domains impairment
Intravenous methylprednisolone 1 g for 5 d
Complete remission, no headache, MMSE, 24
Ataxia, memory impairment, seizures
Intravenous methylprednisolone 1 g for 5 d
Complete remission, no further seizures, MMSE, 26
No further seizures
Dizziness, memory impairment, psychiatric symptoms, hypersomnolence
Intravenous methylprednisolone 500 mg for 5 d followed by oral prednisone tapering
Complete remission, no dizziness and hypersomnolence, CMS, 91
Memory impairment, tremor
Nerve growth factor, vitamin B12
Multiple cognitive domains impairment, insomnia, psychiatric symptoms
Intravenous dexamethasone, 10 mg for 2 weeks, followed by oral methylprednisolone taper
Partial improvement, MMSE, 16
Stroke-like episode, lateralized sensory deficits, dizziness, memory impairment
Intravenous methylprednisolone 500 mg for 5 d followed by oral prednisone taper
Complete remission, no further stroke-like episode
Serologic and CSF studies
Laboratory findings of 13 patients with Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy
Number (%) of patients/total number of patients tested
Anti-TPO antibody elevated
Anti-TG antibody elevated
Aminotransferase level elevated
gG level reduced
Complement C3 level reduced
ENA antibody positive
C reactive protein level elevated
Rheumatoid factor positive
Protein levels elevated
Myelin basic protein levels elevated
gG synthesis rate elevated
Oligoclonal bands positive
EEG was tested in 10 patients. Three (30%) were normal; 4 (40%) had epileptiform abnormalities (Patients No. 2, 3, 8 and 9) and 3 (30%) showed generalized slowing (Patients No. 7, 12 and 13).
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Treatment and follow-up
We followed up all 13 patients (average, 14.5 months; range, 9–25 months). The detailed treatments, responses and related data were given in Table 1.
Among the 8 patients (61.5%) who received corticosteroid therapy, 5 (62.5%) had complete remission; 1 (12.5%) had partial improvement; 1 (12.5%) had relapses, and 1 (12.5%) had no response in our follow-up. Serum levels of antithyroid antibodies were reduced in all the 3 patients retested after corticosteroid treatment. The outcomes of steroid treatment were not associated with the serum levels of antithyroid antibodies, while patients who received early treatment were more likely to have complete remission, especially for patients with stroke-like episodes. For patients whose symptoms persisted for a long time before steroid therapy, it seemed difficult to get significant improvement.
Among 5 patients not treated with steroids, 2 patients with seizures were treated with antiepileptic drugs and had no further epileptic attacks over 12 and 9 months of follow up. No improvement was observed in 1 patient treated with levothyroxine. With general neurotrophic therapy, including nerve growth factor and vitamin B12, complete remission was observed in 1 patient and continued deterioration in the other patient.
HE has attracted growing attention in the last 10 years. This is partly due to its treatability and unclear pathogenesis. In China, HE is still an under recognized entity because of its various clinical manifestations and absence of specific biomarkers. In this retrospective study, by analyzing the clinical, laboratory, imaging features and outcomes of 13 Chinese HE patients, we try to provide more characterization of HE, especially in Chinese patients.
The clinical symptoms of our patients are quite varied. Cognitive impairment and psychiatric symptoms are among the most common symptoms. However, the frequency of seizures and myoclonus showed a big difference from previous reports. In the review by Ferracci et al., seizures and myoclonus are among the most frequent events in all 121 reported HE patients . In other two studies, seizures and myoclonus are also ranked as common symptoms [1, 8]. In our study, seizures were observed in 4 patients and myoclonus was observed in only 1 patient. Due to the various clinical manifestations, initial alternative diagnoses are not surprising. The most common misdiagnoses were ischemic cerebrovascular disease, demyelinating disease and viral encephalitis. Interestingly, unlike the study by Castillo et al. , neurodegenerative diseases, including Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and Alzheimer’s disease, were not frequently considered.
Various neuroimaging features have been reported in HE. MRI may show normal, diffuse cortical atrophy or localized increased T2 signal [7, 15]. In this study, most patients had normal MRI or nonspecific abnormalities. In one patient with MRI follow-up, MRI changes showed resolution paralleling clinical improvement. Interestingly, 3 (23.1%) patients with memory disorders or seizures showed abnormal signals in hippocampus or temporal lobe. Instead of providing direct evidence for diagnosis, neuroimaging studies in HE patients are more important for exclusion of other possible neurological disorders.
Currently, steroid therapy is considered the first choice for HE patients if there are no contraindications . Some researchers include a beneficial response to glucocorticoid therapy as a criterion for the diagnosis of HE . In this study, among 8 patients who received steroid therapy, 5 patients recovered, 1 patient improved with residual deficits, and 2 patients relapsed or had no effect. It is worth noting that among 5 non-steroid treated patients, 3 patients showed stable remission with antiepileptic drugs or general neurotrophic therapy. The true efficacy of steroids remains uncertain without a treatment trial, which is extremely difficult in rare diseases like HE.
The pathogenic mechanism of HE is unknown. The histologic finding of perivascular lymphocytic infiltration , and the response to steroid and other immunomodulatory therapies suggests an autoimmune disorder. Some evidences support the hypothesis of autoimmune vasculitis. The SPECT study showed focal or generalized hypoperfusion which might be produced by vasculitic disruption of cerebral microvasculature . Pathological study demonstrated perivascular lymphocytic infiltration . More important, an autoantigen, α-enolase, was identified in HE patients, but not in the HT and normal controls [18, 19]. α-enolase is an antigen of the thyroid and brain. It is concentrated in endothelial cells. However, the vasculitic hypothesis met many challenges, especially negative pathological findings in some HE patients [20, 21]. Elevated antithyroid antibodies are generally considered necessary for the diagnosis. However, different from other autoimmune neurological disorders such as myasthenia gravis in which autoantibodies have definite mechanism , the role of antithyroid antibodies in the pathogenesis of HE is still not clear. Recently, Blanchin et al. reported that anti-TPO antibody from HE patients were able to bind cerebellar astrocytes in HE patients but not in HT patients . This may support the role of anti-TPO antibody in the pathogenesis of HE. However, considering its wide presence in population , more investigations are needed to prove the pathogenic role of anti-TPO antibody.
The term “Hashimoto’s encephalopathy” was first put forward by Lord Brian in 1966 . Since there is no evidence that antithyroid antibodies have a role in pathogenesis, this term could be misleading. Some investigators proposed the term “steroid-responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis (SREAT)”  to replace “Hashimoto’s encephalopathy”. However, not all HE patients respond to corticosteroid therapy [7, 8, 10]. It also seems inappropriate to name a disorder with treatment response to a nonspecific therapy. Therefore, as Drs. Chong and Rowland noted: “Until the pathogenesis is understood, the eponym (Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy) seems to be the most appropriate name for the condition because it links the only known identifier, a high serum concentration of antithyroid antibodies, to the encephalopathy” .
Our study has several limitations. First, some HE patients, who showed good response to steroids, were not included due to lack of CSF studies. Second, not all patients underwent the same tests and therapy. However, these patients also provide us with an opportunity to observe the clinical course of HE without steroid therapy. Third, data presented here are mostly clinical observations. None of these 13 patients underwent brain biopsy.
This study summarized the clinical, laboratory, imaging features and outcomes of 13 Chinese HE patients. Most patients showed good response to steroids. Some patients improved without steroid therapy. Considering its reversible course, we recommend that HE should always be in the differential diagnosis while evaluating disorders of the central nervous system.
This study was supported by the grants from the National Science Foundation of China (No. 30900478), The New-Star of Science and Technology supported by Beijing Metropolis (No. 2010B053) and Beijing Natural Science Foundation (No. 7102072).
- Castillo P, Woodruff B, Caselli R, Vernino S, Lucchinetti C, Swanson J, Noseworthy J, Aksamit A, Carter J, Sirven J, et al: Steroid-responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis. Arch Neurol. 2006, 63 (2): 197-202. 10.1001/archneur.63.2.197.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Brain L, Jellinek EH, Ball K: Hashimoto’s disease and encephalopathy. Lancet. 1966, 2 (7462): 512-514.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kothbauer-Margreiter I, Sturzenegger M, Komor J, Baumgartner R, Hess CW: Encephalopathy associated with Hashimoto thyroiditis: diagnosis and treatment. J Neurol. 1996, 243 (8): 585-593. 10.1007/BF00900946.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mocellin R, Walterfang M, Velakoulis D: Hashimoto’s encephalopathy : epidemiology, pathogenesis and management. CNS Drugs. 2007, 21 (10): 799-811. 10.2165/00023210-200721100-00002.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zophel K, Saller B, Wunderlich G, Gruning T, Koch R, Wilde J, Mann K, Franke WG: Autoantibodies to thyroperoxidase (TPOAb) in a large population of euthyroid subjects: implications for the definition of TPOAb reference intervals. Clin Lab. 2003, 49 (11–12): 591-600.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Peschen-Rosin R, Schabet M, Dichgans J: Manifestation of Hashimoto’s encephalopathy years before onset of thyroid disease. Eur Neurol. 1999, 41 (2): 79-84. 10.1159/000008007.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ferracci F, Carnevale A: The neurological disorder associated with thyroid autoimmunity. J Neurol. 2006, 253 (8): 975-984. 10.1007/s00415-006-0170-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chong JY, Rowland LP, Utiger RD: Hashimoto encephalopathy: syndrome or myth?. Arch Neurol. 2003, 60 (2): 164-171. 10.1001/archneur.60.2.164.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Archambeaud F, Galinat S, Regouby Y, Magy L, Rebeyrotte I, Vallat JM, Teissier MP: Hashimoto encephalopathy. Analysis of four case reports. Rev Med Interne. 2001, 22 (7): 653-659. 10.1016/S0248-8663(01)00403-9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nolte KW, Unbehaun A, Sieker H, Kloss TM, Paulus W: Hashimoto encephalopathy: a brainstem vasculitis?. Neurology. 2000, 54 (3): 769-770. 10.1212/WNL.54.3.769.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ferracci F, Bertiato G, Moretto G: Hashimoto’s encephalopathy: epidemiologic data and pathogenetic considerations. J Neurol Sci. 2004, 217 (2): 165-168. 10.1016/j.jns.2003.09.007.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schiess N, Pardo CA: Hashimoto’s encephalopathy. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008, 1142: 254-265. 10.1196/annals.1444.018.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR: “Mini-mental state”. A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res. 1975, 12 (3): 189-198. 10.1016/0022-3956(75)90026-6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- He F, Guan H, Zhao Z, Miao X, Zhou Q, Li L, Huang D, Liu A, Miao D: Evaluation of short-term psychological functions in opiate addicts after ablating the nucleus accumbens via stereotactic surgery. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2008, 86 (5): 320-329. 10.1159/000160155.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bohnen NI, Parnell KJ, Harper CM: Reversible MRI findings in a patient with Hashimoto’s encephalopathy. Neurology. 1997, 49 (1): 246-247. 10.1212/WNL.49.1.246.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Duffey P, Yee S, Reid IN, Bridges LR: Hashimoto’s encephalopathy: postmortem findings after fatal status epilepticus. Neurology. 2003, 61 (8): 1124-1126. 10.1212/01.WNL.0000090462.62087.A1.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Forchetti CM, Katsamakis G, Garron DC: Autoimmune thyroiditis and a rapidly progressive dementia: global hypoperfusion on SPECT scanning suggests a possible mechanism. Neurology. 1997, 49 (2): 623-626. 10.1212/WNL.49.2.623.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ochi H, Horiuchi I, Araki N, Toda T, Araki T, Sato K, Murai H, Osoegawa M, Yamada T, Okamura K, et al: Proteomic analysis of human brain identifies alpha-enolase as a novel autoantigen in Hashimoto’s encephalopathy. FEBS Lett. 2002, 528 (1–3): 197-202.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fujii A, Yoneda M, Ito T, Yamamura O, Satomi S, Higa H, Kimura A, Suzuki M, Yamashita M, Yuasa T, et al: Autoantibodies against the amino terminal of alpha-enolase are a useful diagnostic marker of Hashimoto’s encephalopathy. J Neuroimmunol. 2005, 162 (1–2): 130-136.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Oide T, Tokuda T, Yazaki M, Watarai M, Mitsuhashi S, Kaneko K, Hashimoto T, Ohara S, Ikeda S: Anti-neuronal autoantibody in Hashimoto’s encephalopathy: neuropathological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical analysis of two patients. J Neurol Sci. 2004, 217 (1): 7-12. 10.1016/j.jns.2003.08.005.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Striano P, Pagliuca M, Andreone V, Zara F, Coppola A, Striano S: Unfavourable outcome of Hashimoto encephalopathy due to status epilepticus. One autopsy case. J Neurol. 2006, 253 (2): 248-249. 10.1007/s00415-005-0925-6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vincent A, Rothwell P: Myasthenia gravis. Autoimmunity. 2004, 37 (4): 317-319. 10.1080/08916930410001708751.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Blanchin S, Coffin C, Viader F, Ruf J, Carayon P, Potier F, Portier E, Comby E, Allouche S, Ollivier Y, et al: Anti-thyroperoxidase antibodies from patients with Hashimoto’s encephalopathy bind to cerebellar astrocytes. J Neuroimmunol. 2007, 192 (1–2): 13-20.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Engum A, Bjoro T, Mykletun A, Dahl AA: Thyroid autoimmunity, depression and anxiety; are there any connections? an epidemiological study of a large population. J Psychosom Res. 2005, 59 (5): 263-268. 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2005.04.002.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2377/12/60/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.