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Table 2 Atherosclerotic marker factors associated with new vascular events at one-year follow-up

From: The ARTICO study: identification of patients at high risk of vascular recurrence after a first non-cardioembolic stroke

  Primary end-point
  Yes (n = 78) No (n = 485) p
PAD    <0.0001
  No (ABI >0.90) 44.2 70.7  
  Asymptomatic (ABI ≤0.90) 37.7 21.7  
  Symptomatic (ABI ≤0.90 or ABI >0.90) 18.2 7.6  
ICA Stenosis >50% 29.9 18.1 0.01
Vascular disease    <0.0001
  Normal ABI and ICA <50% 38.2 60.9  
  Normal ABI and ICA >50% 6.6 10.0  
  ABI <0.9 and ICA <50% 19.7 15.5  
  Symptomatic PAD and ICA <50% 11.8 5.1  
  ABI <0.9 and ICA >50% 17.1 5.9  
  Symptomatic PAD and ICA >50% 6.6 2.5  
Atheromatous plaques    0.28
  None 20.0 28.4  
  Isolated plaque 17.3 17.5  
  Multiple plaques 62.7 54.1  
Echogenicity of plaques    0.35
  Type I (uniform anechoic) 12.1 13.4  
  Type II (mainly hypoechoic) 15.5 16.4  
  Type III (mainly hyperechoic) 19.0 24.7  
  Type IV (uniform iso- or hyperechoic) 51.7 39.3  
  Type V (calcified) 1.7 6.3  
Plaques surface    0.19
  Smooth and even 61.3 72.8  
  Uneven 37.1 25.8  
  Ulcerated 1.6 1.4  
IMT mm (mean, SD) 0.94 (0.46) 0.91 (0.38) 0.57
Microalbuminuria 18.2 22.4 0.52
  1. All values are percentages unless otherwise stated.
  2. ABI: ankle brachial index. ICA: internal carotid stenosis (either ipsi or contralateral to index stroke). IMT: intima-media thickness. PAD: peripheral artery disease.
  3. p-value (Log-Rank test), apart from IMT (t-Student).