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Table 2 Relative changes in gastrointestinal tract acids in Multiple Sclerosis

From: Metabolic dysfunctions in multiple sclerosis: implications as to causation, early detection, and treatment, a case control study

Carbon length Number of → double bonds/free hydroxyl groups 1 ↓ C28 C30 C32 C34 C36
1/0 ↑RR < 13y     
1/1 ↑RR < 13y     ↑RR < 13y
1/2 ↓SP ↑RR < 13y ↑RR < 13y   
2/0 ↑RR < 13y ↑RR < 13y    
2/1 ↑RR < 13y,↓SP ↓SP ↑RR < 13y ↓SP  
3/0 ↑RR < 13y, ↑PP     
3/1 ↓SP   ↓SP   
3/2    ↑RR < 13y   ↓SP
4/0      
4/1   ↓SP    
  1. Gastrointestinal tract acids are categorized according to their chain length, number of double bonds and the number of free hydroxyl groups. Carbon chain length is given in columns and the number of double bonds and free hydroxyl groups are given in rows, separated by a slash. Up or down arrows indicate a significant increase or decrease in serum concentration respectively, compared to the control group at p < 0.05 (Student’s t- test). RR < 13y; Relapsing remitting Multiple Sclerosis patients with a disease duration <13 years, RR > 13y; Relapsing remitting Multiple Sclerosis patients with a disease duration > =13 years, SP; Secondary progressive Multiple Sclerosis patients, PP; Primary progressive Multiple Sclerosis patients