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Table 1 Outcome measures assessed before and after treatment with PBM

From: Improvements in clinical signs of Parkinson’s disease using photobiomodulation: a prospective proof-of-concept study

Outcome measure test description Reference
Primary Outcome Measure
 Functional mobility Timed up-and-go (TUG) test Assessors measured the time taken for a participant to stand from a chair, walk 3 m, turn around a marker, return and sit down [30]
Secondary Outcome Measures
 Mobility TUG motor As for TUG except that the participant was carrying a cup of water [30]
TUG cognitive As for TUG except that the participant was asked to count backwards from 40 in twos [30]
10-m walk test (10MWT) speed Participants walked a 10 m track. After walking 2 m, Assessors measured the time taken to walk a further 6 m [31]
10MWT Stride length During the 10MWT, Assessors also counted the number of strides taken to walk 6 m [31]
 Dynamic Balance Step test Participants stood with feet together, 10 cm from a 10 cm high step. Assessors counted the number of times that a participant placed their foot repeatedly on the step in 15 s. Both legs were tested [32]
 Cognition Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) Participant completed the MoCA test version 8.1 (www.mocatest.org), which was scored by an assessor [33]
 Fine motor skills Spiral test Assessors recorded the time taken to draw between the lines of a printed Archimedean spiral. A time penalties of 3 s and 5 s were given for touching a line or crossing a line respectively. Dominant hand was tested [34]
Nine-hole peg test (NHPT) Assessors recorded the time taken to place 9 pegs in holes and then return the pegs to the reservoir. Both hands were tested [35]
Micrographia Participants were asked to write the same sentence at each assessment. The area and perimeter of each word was measured using Image J software  
 Static Balance Tandem stance (TS) Assessors recorded the time that a participant could stand with one foot in front of the other (heel to toe) with eyes closed until the participant opened their eyes, a step was taken, or the participant used a hand to steady themselves. The assessment was terminated at 30 s. Both legs were tested [36]
  Single leg stance (SLS) Assessors recorded the time that a participant could stand with one foot raised in the air with eyes closed until the participant opened their eyes, a step was taken, or the participant used a hand to steady themselves. The assessment was terminated at 30 s. Both legs were tested [36]