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Table 4 Medians (inter-quartile ranges) of outcome measures, before and after PBM treatment for group B (n = 6)

From: Improvements in clinical signs of Parkinson’s disease using photobiomodulation: a prospective proof-of-concept study

  On enrolment Before PBM treatment After 4 weeks PBM treatment After 12 weeks PBM treatment
Mobility tests
 10MWT walk speed (m/s) 1.21 (0.24) 1.82 (0.30)* 1.94 (0.28)* 1.93 (0.27)
 10MWT stride length (m) 0.52 (0.09) 0.67(0.11) 0.71 (0.08) 0.70 (0.08)
 TUG (s) 7.9 (1.6) 7.4 (1.4)* 6.6 (0.8)* 6.9 (1.1)
 TUG motor (s) 8.6(1.2) 8.2 (1.4) 7.1 (0.7) 6.9 (1.4)
 TUG cognitive (s) 9.6 (1.8) 7.5 (1.1) 7.0 (1.3)* 6.8 (1.3)
Dynamic Balance test
 Step test - affected leg (n) 10.0 (4.3) 14.0 (2.0)* 15.0 (2.3) 15.5 (4.0)
 Step test - unaffected leg (n) 11.5 (1.8) 12.5 (3.3) 15.0 (2.3) 16.0 (5.0)
Cognition test
 MoCA 26.0 (2.3) 27.5 (2.5) 28.0 (1.5) 29.0 (1.5)
Fine Motor Skill tests
 NHPT - affected hand (s) 24.6 (6.3) 22.5 (7.0) 24.0 (4.1) 26.0 (9.7)
 NHPT - unaffected hand (s) 22.1 (2.1) 25.4 (7.2) 23.9 (4.7) 24.0 (6.9)
 Spiral test - dominant hand (s) 35.2 (4.4) 33.9 (10.9) 27.3 (10.6) 29.0 (6.2)
Static Balance tests
 TS affected leg behind (s) 2.0 (3.0) 5.6 (6.2) 19.5 (24.2)* 5.8 (10.6)
 TS unaffected leg behind (s) 1.0 (3.0) 4.2 (7.0) 3.2 (20.3) 2.3 (13.6)
 SLS affected leg raised (s) 1.5 (1.8) 1.6 (1.0) 1.2 (1.2) 0.8 (4.5)
 SLS unaffected leg raised (s) 1.0 (0.8) 2.1 (1.8) 0.1 (1.2) 0.9 (4.8)
  1. Significant improvement in outcome measure - * p < 0.05
  2. 10MWT 10 metre walk test, TUG timed up-and-go, MoCA Montreal Cognitive Assessment, NHPT nine-hole peg test, TS tandem stance (eyes closed), SLS single leg stance (eyes closed)