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Table 2 Clinical, sociodemographic and assessment values for each cognitive group

From: Identifying comorbidities and lifestyle factors contributing to the cognitive profile of early Parkinson’s disease

  PD-NC (n = 393) PD-MCI (n = 114) PDD (n = 26) p-value Post-hoc
Age 60.8 ± 8.8 67.1 ± 6.4 68.1 ± 8.6 < 0.001 a < 0.001; b0.876
Education
 Primary (%) 32.1 68.4 84.6 < 0.001
 Secondary (%) 35.1 26.3 15.4 < 0.001
 University (%) 32.6 5.3 0 < 0.001
Disease duration (months) 5.59 ± 6.6 5.42 ± 3.5 4.96 ± 4.3 0.858 a0.962; b0.964
Hypertension (% yes) 30.3 45.6 34.6 < 0.05 a < 0.05; 0.212
Diabetes mellitus (% yes) 5.6 15.8 15.4 < 0.005 a < 0.05; b0.613
Dyslipidaemia (% yes) 28.8 39.5 38.5 0.070 a < 0.05; b0.554
Cardiopathy (% yes) 7.9 11.4 3.8 0.340 a0.162; b0.221
Arrhythmia (% yes) 4.3 7 3.8 0.486 0.176; b0.475
Smoking (% yes)) 9.7 9.6 15.4 0.828 a0.347; b0.521
Alcohol (% yes) 21.6 19.3 23.1 0.842 a0.347; b0.422
Vitamin supplementation (% yes) 5.9 2.6 7.7 0.338 a0.126; b0.232
TSREM (% yes) 37.7 39.5 46.2 0.888 a < 0.818; b0.341
UPDRS-III (off) 21.1 ± 11 23.4 ± 11 27.3 ± 11 0.006 a0.117; b0.016
H&Y (off) 1.9 ± 0.5 1.9 ± 0.6 2.2 ± 0.6 0.006 a0.608; b0.039
LD equivalent daily dose 506 ± 398 567 ± 462 627 ± 530 0.088 a0.382; b0.500
DA equivalent daily dose 179 ± 169 182 ± 184 223 ± 177 0.486 a0.986; b0.453
Cognitive stimulation (%) 18.1% 12.3% 11.5% 0.268 a0.092; b0.610
Exercise (%) 69.7% 64% 50% 0.077 a0.150; b0.135
PD-CRS Total 98.8 ± 10 75.1 ± 4 58.8 ± 5 < 0.001 a < 0.001; b < 0.001
 Fronto-subcortical 70.2 ± 10.4 49.1 ± 5.2 36 ± 6.8 < 0.001 a < 0.001; b < 0.001
  Immediate verbal memory 8.6 ± 1.8 6.7 ± 2.1 5.7 ± 1.7 < 0.001 a < 0.001; b0.039
  Sustained attention 9 ± 1.2 7.4 ± 2 5.2 ± 3 < 0.001 a < 0.001; b < 0.001
  Working memory 7.7 ± 2 5.2 ± 2 3.6 ± 2 < 0.001 a < 0.001; b < 0.001
  Clock draw 9.4 ± 1.4 8.3 ± 1.4 7 ± 2.3 < 0.001 a < 0.001; b < 0.001
  Delayed free recall 6.2 ± 2.5 4.1 ± 2 2.3 ± 2 < 0.001 a < 0.001; b < 0.001
  Alternating verbal fluency 12.8 ± 3.7 7.2 ± 2.6 5.5 ± 3.3 < 0.001 a < 0.001; b0.078
  Action verbal fluency 16.4 ± 5.3 10 ± 3.1 7.6 ± 3.3 < 0.001 a < 0.001; b0.059
 Posterior-cortical 28.5 ± 2.6 26 ± 3.6 22.8 ± 4 < 0.001 a < 0.001; b < 0.001
  Confrontation naming 18.7 ± 2.4 16.9 ± 3.6 14.8 ± 3.9 < 0.001 a < 0.001; b0.002
  Clock copy 9.8 ± 1 9 ± 1 8 ± 2 < 0.001 a < 0.001; b < 0.001
Protein S100B 0.125 ± 0.6 0.094 ± 0.10 0.086 ± 0.01 0.932 a0.941; b0.999
TNF alpha 7.2 ± 3 7.5 ± 4.5 6.4 ± 3.5 0.701 a0.903; b0.684
IL-1 3.8 ± 15.1 4.4 ± 6.7 6.5 ± 7.3 0.849 a0.969; b0.917
IL-2 1.9 ± 7.5 6.4 ± 33.8 30.5 ± 79.4 < 0.005 a0.529; b< 0.005
IL-6 2.3 ± 3.5 4.2 ± 9.6 9 ± 17.7 < 0.01 a0.242; b< 0.05
Vitamin B12 396.4 ± 152.2 395.4 ± 209.9 358 ± 137.48 0.817 a0.999; b0.831
Methylmalonic acid 0.16 ± 0.1 0.17 ± 0.1 0.26 ± 0.26 0.070 a0.767; b0.168
Homocysteine 14 ± 5.3 15.3 ± 7.7 16.2 ± 4 0.355 a0.488; b0.914
CRP 0.2 ± 0.3 0.22 ± 0.29 0.19 ± 0.34 0.922 a0.917; b0.974
Uric acid 5.5 ± 2.2 5.5 ± 1.6 5.8 ± 0.9 0.916 a0.999; b0.927
Ferritin 126.6 ± 110 117 ± 163 60 ± 58 0.367 a0.906; b0.500
Iron 91.7 ± 36.7 80 ± 31.4 80 ± 30.5 0.158 a0.174; b0.999
  1. a p ≤ 0.05 significance based on paired t-test. (PD-NC vs PD-MCI)
  2. b p ≤ 0.05 significance based on paired t-test. (PD-MCI vs PDD)