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Table 3 Neuropsychiatric symptoms

From: Identifying comorbidities and lifestyle factors contributing to the cognitive profile of early Parkinson’s disease

  PD-NC PD-MCI PDD p-value Post-hoc
NPI Total (frequency x severity) 5.4 ± 7.3 7.7 ± 8.7 9 ± 9.9 0.007 a < 0.001; b0.721
 % NPI total > 1 60.4 70.2 72.7 0.126 a0.05; 0.518
 Delirium 0.1 ± 0.9 0.2 ± 0.9 0 ± 0 0.586 a0.726; b0.619
 % NPI > 1 2.3 4.3 0 0.432 a0.246; b0.441
 Hallucinations 0.1 ± 0.7 0.3 ± 1.5 0.3 ± 0.8 0.162 a0.150; b0.951
 % NPI > 1 3.3 7.1 9.5 0.138 a0.088; b0.496
 Agitation 0.4 ± 1.2 0.5 ± 1.3 0.9 ± 1.7 0.183 a0.585; b0.525
 % NPI > 1 9.1 13.5 19 0.198 a0.141; b0.362
 Depression/dysphoria 1.3 ± 2.1 2 ± 2.9 2.2 ± 3.4 0.020 a0.034; b0.258
 % NPI > 1 21.8 41.8 33.8 0.055 a < 0.05; b0.320
 Anxiety 1.4 ± 2.3 1.6 ± 2.3 1.5 ± 2.1 0.708 a0.684; b0.988
 % NPI > 1 33 39.2 34.8 0.537 a0.160; b0.445
 Euphoria 0.2 ± 0.9 0.2 ± 0.8 0 ± 0 0.666 a0.934; b0.548
 % NPI > 1 4.7 6.3 0 0.460 a0.340; b0.293
 Apathy 0.9 ± 2 1.9 ± 3 2.3 ± 2.7 < 0.001 a < 0.001; b0.839
 % NPI > 1 21.4 35.4 42.9 < 0.005 a < 0.005; b0.341
 Disinhibition 0.06 ± 0.4 0.1 ± 0.6 0 ± 0 0.183 a0.230; b0.341
 % NPI > 1 1.7 3.2 0 0.520 a0.294; b0.543
 Irritability 0.8 ± 1.6 1.1 ± 2 1.3 ± 2.3 0.132 a0.207; b0.930
 % NPI > 1 20 27.4 27.3 0.265 a0.086; b0.610
 Aberrant motor behaviour 0.2 ± 1 0.2 ± 0.7 0.7 ± 2.1 0.102 a0.985; b0.134
 % NPI > 1 4 6.4 9.5 0.373 a0.238; b0.448
  1. a p ≤ 0.05 significance based on paired t-test. (PD-NC vs PD-MCI)
  2. b p ≤ 0.05 significance based on paired t-test. (PD-MCI vs PDD)