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  1. Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is an immune-mediated fibro-inflammatory condition characterized by high serum IgG4 concentrations and tissue infiltration by IgG4-positive plasma cells. Reports hav...

    Authors: Jeong Bin Bong, Dong Kun Lee, Min A Lee, Byoung Wook Hwang and Hyun Goo Kang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:41

    Content type: Case report

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  2. Surgery is a potential trigger of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), a disorder which leads to an autoimmune-mediated attack of peripheral nerves. The present study was designed to explore clinical features of pos...

    Authors: Qiaoyu Gong, Shuping Liu, Yin Liu, Jiajia Yao, Xiujuan Fu, Zheman Xiao and Zuneng Lu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:40

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS) is caused by a reactivation of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection, and it is characterized by the symptoms of facial paralysis, otalgia, auricular rash, and/or an oral lesion. El...

    Authors: Yuan-Mei Liao, Hai-Feng Lu, Peng Xie, Ying Zhao, Qiu Han, Qian-Xi Zhang, Xiao-Hua Zuo, Yan-Na Si and Hong-Guang Bao

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:39

    Content type: Case report

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  4. Ambulatory and balance functions are important for maintaining general health in humans. Gait analysis allows clinicians and researchers to identify the parameters to be focused on when assessing balance and a...

    Authors: Min Cheol Chang, Byung Joo Lee, Na-Young Joo and Donghwi Park

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:38

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is a serious neurological complication of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) after revascularization. The majority of AIS patients do not have atrial fibrillation (AF) which could also...

    Authors: Hao-Ran Cheng, Yun-Bin Chen, Ya-Ying Zeng, Yi-Ting Ruan, Cheng-Xiang Yuan, Qian-Qian Cheng, Hui-Jun Chen, Xiao-Qian Luan, Gui-Qian Huang and Jin-Cai He

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:36

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Early stage neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) with non-opticospinal manifestations as initial symptoms are easily misdiagnosed; however, data on the full symptom profile are limited. Moreover, th...

    Authors: Rui Li, Danli Lu, Hao Li, Yuge Wang, Yaqing Shu, Yanyu Chang, Xiaobo Sun, Zhengqi Lu, Wei Qiu and Zhi Yang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:35

    Content type: Research article

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  7. The communication of a life-changing diagnosis can be a difficult task for doctors with potential long-term effects on patient outcomes. Although several studies have addressed the experiences of individuals w...

    Authors: Eleftherios Anestis, Fiona J. R. Eccles, Ian Fletcher and Jane Simpson

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:34

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis has been recently reported to cause hemichorea, mainly in East Asia. The East Asian-specific p.R4810K variant of RNF213, a susceptibility gene for moyamoya disease (MMD), ac...

    Authors: Satoshi Hosoki, Takeshi Yoshimoto and Masafumi Ihara

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:32

    Content type: Case report

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  9. Hypothyroidism (HT) and carotid artery stenosis (CAS) are complications of radiotherapy (RT) in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). The impact of post-RT HT on CAS progression remains unclear.

    Authors: Chi-Hung Liu, Joseph Tung-Chieh Chang, Tsong-Hai Lee, Pi-Yueh Chang, Chien-Hung Chang, Hsiu-Chuan Wu, Ting-Yu Chang, Kuo-Lun Huang, Chien-Yu Lin, Kang-Hsing Fan and Yeu-Jhy Chang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:30

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Symplastic hemangioma is a benign superficial abnormal buildup of blood vessels, with morphological features which can mimic a pseudo malignancy. A few cases have been reported in the literature. We report her...

    Authors: Najwa Abdalkabeer A. Bantan, Ahmed H. Abouissa, Muhammad Saeed, Mustafa Hassan Alwalily, Kamal Bakour Balkhoyour, Khalid Mohammad Ashour, Amal Ali Hassan, Afnan Hisham Falemban and Mohiuddin M. Taher

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:29

    Content type: Case report

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  11. Abnormal eye movements are common in spinocerebellar ataxias Type 3 (SCA3). We conducted the research to explore the frequency of abnormal eye movements in Chinese patients with SCA3, to compare the demographi...

    Authors: Junyu Lin, Lingyu Zhang, Bei Cao, Qianqian Wei, Ruwei Ou, Yanbing Hou, Xinran Xu, Kuncheng Liu, Xiaojing Gu and Huifang Shang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:28

    Content type: Research article

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  12. This observational study was performed to show the impact of complications and interventions during neurocritical care on the outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).

    Authors: Alexander Hammer, Frank Erbguth, Matthias Hohenhaus, Christian M. Hammer, Hannes Lücking, Markus Gesslein, Monika Killer-Oberpfalzer, Hans-Herbert Steiner and Hendrik Janssen

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:27

    Content type: Research article

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  13. To investigate the feasibility of intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring after traumatic brain injury (TBI) by electromagnetic coupling phase sensing, we established a portable electromagnetic coupling phase s...

    Authors: Gen Li, Wang Li, Jingbo Chen, Shuanglin Zhao, Zelin Bai, Qi Liu, Qi Liao, Minglian He, Wei Zhuang, Mingsheng Chen, Jian Sun and Yujie Chen

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:26

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Meningiomas are the most common benign intracranial tumors, and commonly comprise high-vascularizing but slow-growing tumors. On the other hand, meningiomas arising from the ventricular system are of rare occu...

    Authors: Koichiro Sumi, Takeshi Suma, Reona Yoshida, Ryuta Kajimoto, Masato Kobayashi, Takamichi Katsuhara, Koki Hirayama, Xiaoyan Tang, Naoki Otani and Atsuo Yoshino

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:25

    Content type: Case report

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  15. Stroke is a major health problem around the world. Several studies have examine the influence of ambient temperature on incidence of stoke, but they reported different results for different types of stroke and...

    Authors: Mirjam Ravljen, Fajko Bajrović and Damjan Vavpotič

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:23

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Increasing evidences have showed that neuroimaging markers of SVD can predict the short-term outcome of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). It is unclear that whether neuroimaging markers of SVD are also associated w...

    Authors: Xuemei Chen, Lin Wang, Junying Jiang, Yuanyuan Gao, Rui Zhang, Xiaoyuan Zhao, Tingwen Shen, Qi Dai and Junrong Li

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:21

    Content type: Research article

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  17. The prevalence of carotid artery stenosis (CAS) in acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) patients is historically reported at 15–20%, but an up-to-date estimate is lacking. We hypothesise it is lower than historically ...

    Authors: Twan J van Velzen, Laurien S Kuhrij, Willeke F Westendorp, Diederik van de Beek and Paul J Nederkoorn

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:20

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Residual motor deficits of the upper limb in patients with chronic stroke are common and have a negative impact on autonomy, participation and quality of life. Music-Supported Therapy (MST) is an effective int...

    Authors: Jennifer Grau-Sánchez, Emma Segura, David Sanchez-Pinsach, Preeti Raghavan, Thomas F. Münte, Anna Marie Palumbo, Alan Turry, Esther Duarte, Teppo Särkämö, Jesus Cerquides, Josep Lluis Arcos and Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:19

    Content type: Study protocol

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  19. Dorsolateral medullary infarction is a typical cerebral infarction which is characterized by Wallenberg’s syndrome. Neurotrophic keratopathy is an uncommon consequence of dorsolateral medullary infarction. At ...

    Authors: Jing Wang, Pei Liu, Zhongzhong Liu, Ye Tian, Guilian Zhang, Jun Guo, Li Li, Zhiqin Liu, Zucheng Han, Wenjuan Lin, Xuemei Lin, Qingli Lu, Yan Liu, Qiaoqiao Chang and Songdi Wu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:18

    Content type: Study protocol

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  20. Glucocerebrosidase (GBA) heterozygous variants are the most important genetic risk factor for the development of alpha-synucleinopathies (i.e., Parkinson’s disease and Dementia with Lewy Bodies). Herein, we repor...

    Authors: Marina Picillo, Sara Scannapieco, Alessandro Iavarone, Monia Ginevrino, Enza Maria Valente and Paolo Barone

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:17

    Content type: Case report

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  21. Parkinson’s disease (PD), frequently accompanied by cognitive impairments, is associated with systemic oxidative stress and abnormal structural changes on brain images. We aimed to identify the correlation bet...

    Authors: Ta-Chih Chang, Yi-Cun Chen, Yu-Chi Huang, Wei-Che Lin and Cheng-Hsien Lu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:16

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Vascular Parkinsonism(VaP) is defined as parkinsonism resulting from cerebral vascular disease(CVD), with presence of variable motor and non-motor signs that are corroborated by clinical, anatomic or imaging f...

    Authors: Shouzi Zhang, Yuanyuan Wang, Lixin Liu, Li Zhang, Li Ma, Haiyan Wu, Xuelin He, Mingwei Zhu, Luning Wang and Fan Mei

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:15

    Content type: Case report

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  23. Adenomyosis, a benign gynecological disease, causes cerebral infarction. Similar to Trousseau’s syndrome, it elevates cancer antigen 125 (CA125) and D-dimer levels; causes hypercoagulability; and results in ce...

    Authors: Ryo Aiura, Sadayoshi Nakayama, Hroo Yamaga, Yu Kato and Hirotake Fujishima

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:14

    Content type: Case report

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  24. Dystrophinopathies are the most common type of inherited muscular diseases. Muscle biopsy and genetic tests are effective to diagnose the disease but cost much more than primary hospitals can reach. The more a...

    Authors: Mei Yang, Yiming Zheng, Zhiying Xie, Zhaoxia Wang, Jiangxi Xiao, Jue Zhang and Yun Yuan

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:13

    Content type: Research article

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  25. SPG11 mutation-related autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia with thin corpus callosum (HSP-TCC) is the most common cause in complicated forms of HSP, usually presenting comprehensive mental retardati...

    Authors: Chuan Li, Qi Yan, Feng-ju Duan, Chao Zhao, Zhuo Zhang, Ying Du and Wei Zhang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:12

    Content type: Research article

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  26. The status of research and scientific outputs with regards to bacterial central nervous system (CNS) infection in southeast Asia (SEA) is unknown. This study aimed to analyze and compare bacterial CNS infectio...

    Authors: Francis Gerwin U. Jalipa, Marie Charmaine C. Sy, Adrian I. Espiritu and Roland Dominic G. Jamora

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:11

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Currently, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-IgG-associated encephalomyelitis (MOG-EM) is regarded as an independent inflammatory demyelinating disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities o...

    Authors: Weibing Shen, Yaner Zhang, Chenguang Zhou and Yaoyao Shen

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:10

    Content type: Case report

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  28. Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is associated with a high incidence of thrombotic events, either arterial thrombosis or venous thrombosis. However, APS-related non-thrombotic venous stenosis is rarely reported.

    Authors: Si-ying Song, Gary Rajah, Yu-chuan Ding, Xun-ming Ji and Ran Meng

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:9

    Content type: Case report

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  29. Some epidemiologic studies have reported a sharp increase in multiple sclerosis (MS) incidence in different provinces in Iran. This report aimed to investigate more closely the increasing trend of MS incidence...

    Authors: Ali Hosseinzadeh, Behnaz Sedighi, Jamshid Kermanchi, Mohammad Heidari and Ali Akbar Haghdoost

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:7

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Unplanned readmission is one of many measures of the quality of care of pediatric patients with neurological conditions. In this multicenter study, we searched for novel risk factors of readmission of patients...

    Authors: Ryan O’Connell, William Feaster, Vera Wang, Sharief Taraman and Louis Ehwerhemuepha

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:5

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Stroke in adults aged between 18 and 64 years old is increasing significantly worldwide. Studies have reported that this group of young stroke survivors encounters enormous difficulties reintegrating into thei...

    Authors: Suzanne Hoi Shan Lo, Janita Pak Chun Chau, Kai Chow Choi, Edward Wai Ching Shum, Jonas Hon Ming Yeung and Siu Hung Li

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:3

    Content type: Study protocol

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  32. Migraine is a prevalent and disabling headache disorder that affects more than 1.04 billion individuals world-wide. It can result in reduction in quality of life, increased disability, and high socio-economic ...

    Authors: Philippe Ryvlin, Kirill Skorobogatykh, Andrea Negro, Rainel Sanchez-De La Rosa, Heike Israel-Willner, Christina Sundal, E. Anne MacGregor and Angel L. Guerrero

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:1

    Content type: Research article

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  33. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Xianyue Liu, Ke Han, Mingyi Hu, Huanquan Liao and Qinghua Hou

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:449

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Neurology 2020 20:423

  34. This article has been retracted. Please see the Retraction Notice for more detail: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12883-020-02027-1.

    Authors: Dan Lu, Yuan Wang, Tianzhi Zhao, Bolin Liu, Lin Ye, Lanfu Zhao, Binfang Zhao, Mingjuan Li, Lin Ma, Zhengmin Li, Jiangtao Niu, Wenhai Lv, Yufu Zhang, Tao Zheng, Yafei Xue, Lei Chen…

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:448

    Content type: Retraction Note

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Neurology 2020 20:150

  35. This article has been retracted. Please see the Retraction Notice for more detail: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12883-020-02025-3

    Authors: Christessa Emille Que Albay, Frederick Gavril D. Leyson and Federick C. Cheng

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:447

    Content type: Retraction Note

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Neurology 2020 20:224

  36. Personalized ENCALS survival prediction model reliably estimates the personalized prognosis of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Concerns were raised on discussing personalized prognosis without causin...

    Authors: Remko M. van Eenennaam, Willeke J. Kruithof, Michael A. van Es, Esther T. Kruitwagen-van Reenen, Henk-Jan Westeneng, Johanna M. A. Visser-Meily, Leonard H. van den Berg and Anita Beelen

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:446

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Cervicocerebral artery dissection is an important cause of ischemic stroke in young and middle-aged individuals. However, very few studies have compared the differential features between internal carotid arter...

    Authors: Yongjun Wu, Hongbin Chen, Shihui Xing, Shuangquan Tan, Xinran Chen, Yan Tan, Jinsheng Zeng and Jian Zhang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:445

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) autoimmune astrocytopathy is characterized by GFAP autoantibody positive encephalitis, meningoencephalitis or meningoencephalomyelitis. The initial clinical presentation ...

    Authors: Han Wang, Jerome H. Chin, Bo-yan Fang, Xi Chen, Ai-lin Zhao, Hai-tao Ren and Hong-zhi Guan

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:443

    Content type: Case report

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  39. Although a central role of the thalamus for sleep regulation is undisputed, the exact localization of the crucial structures within the thalamus remains controversial.

    Authors: Peter Nørregaard Hansen, Thomas Krøigård, Nina Nguyen, Rune Vestergaard Frandsen, Poul Jørgen Jennum and Christoph P. Beier

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:442

    Content type: Case report

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  40. Reducing prehospital delay plays an important role in increasing the thrombolysis rate in patients with stroke. Several studies have identified predictors for presentation ≤4.5 h, but few compared these predic...

    Authors: Matthias N. Ungerer, Loraine Busetto, Nima H. Begli, Katharina Riehle, Jens Regula and Christoph Gumbinger

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2020 20:441

    Content type: Research article

    Published on: