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  1. Extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) has been suggested to cause neuroinflammation and motor neuron degeneration by activating microglia and astrocytes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Since we...

    Authors: Takamasa Nukui, Atsushi Matsui, Hideki Niimi, Tomoyuki Sugimoto, Tomohiro Hayashi, Nobuhiro Dougu, Hirofumi Konishi, Mamoru Yamamoto, Ryoko Anada, Noriyuki Matsuda, Isao Kitajima and Yuji Nakatsuji

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:255

    Content type: Research

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  2. Effective inclusion in society for young people with disabilities is increasingly seen as generating opportunities for self-development, and improving well-being. However, significant barriers remain in the va...

    Authors: Catherine Arnaud, Carine Duffaut, Jérôme Fauconnier, Silke Schmidt, Kate Himmelmann, Marco Marcelli, Lindsay Pennington, Joaquim Alvarelhão, Chirine Cytera, Marion Rapp, Virginie Ehlinger and Ute Thyen

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:254

    Content type: Study protocol

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  3. Epilepsy is a severe chronic neurologic disease with a prevalence of 0.7% worldwide; anti-seizure medications (ASMs) are the mainstay of epilepsy treatment. The effects of sociodemographic factors on the chara...

    Authors: Qiong Zhu, Yi Guo, Shuai Ma, Lili Yang, Zhonghua Lin, Hongbin Sun, Guangzong Li and Liang Yu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:251

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Authors: Roderick P. P. W. M. Maas, Ivan Toni, Jonne Doorduin, Thomas Klockgether, Dennis J. L. G. Schutter and Bart P. C. van de Warrenburg

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:250

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in BMC Neurology 2019 19:149

  5. Non-pharmacological approaches for the management of migraine exhibit low to moderate effectiveness due to a lack of high-quality randomized clinical trials. In fact, previous studies applied isolated techniqu...

    Authors: Gabriella de Almeida Tolentino, Lidiane Lima Florencio, Carina Ferreira Pinheiro, Fabíola Dach, César Fernández-de-las-Peñas and Débora Bevilaqua-Grossi

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:249

    Content type: Study protocol

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  6. Inherited prion diseases are rare autosomal dominant disorders associated with diverse clinical presentations. All are associated with mutation of the gene that encodes prion protein (PRNP). Homozygous mutations ...

    Authors: Ahamad Hassan, Tracy Campbell, Lee Darwent, Hans Odd, Alison Green, John Collinge and Simon Mead

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:248

    Content type: Case report

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  7. Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) is necessary for stent assisted coiling. However, long term use of DAPT has a potential risk of hemorrhagic events. We aimed to examine the relationship between clopidogrel rea...

    Authors: Kenji Shoda, Yukiko Enomoto, Yusuke Egashira, Takamasa Kinoshita, Daisuke Mizutani and Toru Iwama

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:247

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Cranial nerve involvement is not commonly encountered in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP); this is especially true for involvement of the hypoglossal nerve. Neither Beevor's sig...

    Authors: Huajian Zhao, Yiming Zheng, Lingchao Meng, Meng Yu, Wei Zhang, He Lv, Zhaoxia Wang, Hongjun Hao and Yun Yuan

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:244

    Content type: Case report

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  9. Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, also referred to as Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease (CMT), is most often caused by a duplication of the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) gene. This duplication causes CMT ...

    Authors: Nozomu Matsuda, Koushi Ootsuki, Shunsuke Kobayashi, Ayaka Nemoto, Hitoshi Kubo, Shin-ichi Usami and Kazuaki Kanani

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:243

    Content type: Case report

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  10. Levodopa–carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) treatment, a unique drug delivery system for patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD), is covered by health insurance in Japan since September 2016. Various LCIG...

    Authors: Kanefumi Yamashita, Yukinori Yube, Yukinao Yamazaki, Takehide Fukuchi, Masaki Kato, Tomoyuki Koike, Takeshi Uehara, Yoshiou Ikeda, Satoshi Furune, Hidehiro Murakami, Eiji Kubota, Shinsuke Fujioka, Yoshinori Sato, Xiaoyi Jin, Tomohiko Suzuki, Kazuhiro Furukawa…

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:242

    Content type: Research

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  11. Sarcopenia is the age-related loss of muscle mass and strength. Undiagnosed late-onset neuromuscular disorders need to be considered in the differential diagnosis of sarcopenia.

    Authors: Fabian Hofmeister, Lisa Baber, Uta Ferrari, Stefan Hintze, Stefanie Jarmusch, Sabine Krause, Peter Meinke, Stefan Mehaffey, Carl Neuerburg, Fabiana Tangenelli, Benedikt Schoser and Michael Drey

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:241

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Antipsychotics are used in Parkinson disease (PD) to treat psychosis, mood, and behavioral disturbances. Commonly used antipsychotics differ substantially in their potential to worsen motor symptoms through do...

    Authors: Thanh Phuong Pham Nguyen, Danielle S. Abraham, Dylan Thibault, Daniel Weintraub and Allison W. Willis

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:240

    Content type: Research

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  13. This study aimed to investigate the frequency and risk factors for cerebral artery stenosis and occlusion in patients with polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M-protein, and skin changes (POEMS) synd...

    Authors: Atsuhiko Sugiyama, Hajime Yokota, Sonoko Misawa, Hiroki Mukai, Yukari Sekiguchi, Kyosuke Koide, Tomoki Suichi, Jun Matsushima, Takashi Kishimoto, Zen-ichi Tanei, Yuko Saito, Shoichi Ito and Satoshi Kuwabara

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:239

    Content type: Research

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  14. The purpose of our study was to analyse endovascular treatment (EVT) in patients presenting acute anterior circulation ischemic stroke with large-vessel occlusion (AIS-LVO) during the pandemic and post-epidemi...

    Authors: Tangqin Zhang, Chu Chen, Xiangjun Xu, Junfeng Xu, Ke Yang, Youqing Xu, Lili Yuan, Qian Yang, Xianjun Huang and Zhiming Zhou

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:238

    Content type: Research

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  15. Studies have suggested that glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists such as tirofiban are beneficial for patients with acute coronary syndromes. However, it is still uncertain about the efficacy and safety of tirofi...

    Authors: Chunrong Tao, Yuyou Zhu, Chao Zhang, Jianlong Song, Tianlong Liu, Xiaodong Yuan, Wenwu Luo, Changchun Chen, Dezhi Liu, Yuanyuan Zhu, Jie Liu and Wei Hu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:237

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common helminthic infection of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium. Accurate and early diagnosis of NCC remains challenging due to its...

    Authors: Bin Chen, Zheng Chen, Yi-shu Yang, Gui-lan Cai, Xiao-jiao Xu, Hong-zhi Guan, Hai-tao Ren and Hou-zhen Tuo

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:236

    Content type: Case report

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  17. The prevalence of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) has been increasing worldwide and the highest prevalence ratio among Asian countries was reported in Iran. This study aims to estimate the increase in MS occurrence du...

    Authors: Payam Amini, Amir Almasi-Hashiani, Mohammad Ali Sahraian, Masood Najafi and Sharareh Eskandarieh

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:235

    Content type: Research

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  18. Patients who develop hospital-onset unresponsiveness should be promptly managed in order to avoid clinical deterioration. Pupillary examination through pupillary light reflex is the gold standard method in the...

    Authors: Hyunjo Lee, Soh Hyun Choi, Bobin Park, Yoon-Hee Hong, Han-Bin Lee and Sang-Beom Jeon

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:234

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is common in elderly patients and can be alleviated by pulsed radiofrequency (PRF). However, PRF treatments display different efficacy on different nerves. The purpose of this stud...

    Authors: Xuehua Huang, Yanfeng Ma, Weimin Wang, Yunxiu Guo, Bo Xu and Ke Ma

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:233

    Content type: Research

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  20. Gliosarcoma (GS) refers to the presence of mesenchymal differentiation (as seen using light microscopy) in the setting of glioblastoma (GB, an astrocytoma, WHO Grade 4). Although the same approach to treatment...

    Authors: Christopher Dardis, David Donner, Nader Sanai, Joanne Xiu, Sandeep Mittal, Sharon K. Michelhaugh, Manjari Pandey, Santosh Kesari, Amy B. Heimberger, Zoran Gatalica, Michael W. Korn, Ashley L. Sumrall and Surasak Phuphanich

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:231

    Content type: Research

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    The Publisher Correction to this article has been published in BMC Neurology 2021 21:316

  21. Dynamic axial computed tomographic angiography (dynax–CTA), covering a thin width, with a focus on the bilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA), can quickly visualize the internal carotid artery (ICA) or MCA occ...

    Authors: Takahisa Mori, Kazuhiro Yoshioka, Wataru Mori and Yuhei Tanno

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:230

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Ischemic events are the most common postoperative complication in bypass surgery for moyamoya disease (MMD), but the risk factors for pediatric MMD remain unclear. The goal of the study was to investigate the ...

    Authors: Xiaofeng Deng, Peicong Ge, Rong Wang, Dong Zhang, Jizong Zhao and Yan Zhang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:229

    Content type: Research article

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  23. This retrospective study evaluates patient-reported outcomes in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) spasticity who were treated with a cannabinoid oromucosal spray (Sativex®, USAN name: nabiximols) after not...

    Authors: Marie D’hooghe, Barbara Willekens, Valerie Delvaux, Miguel D’haeseleer, Daniel Guillaume, Guy Laureys, Guy Nagels, Patrick Vanderdonckt, Vincent Van Pesch and Veronica Popescu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:227

    Content type: Research

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  24. We aim to compare the effect of long-term anti-seizure medication (ASM) monotherapy on the risk of death and new ischemic stroke in patients with post-stroke epilepsy (PSE).

    Authors: Chia-Yu Hsu, Chun-Yu Cheng, Jiann-Der Lee, Meng Lee and Bruce Ovbiagele

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:226

    Content type: Research

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  25. The global status of the COVID-19 pandemic is not optimistic. This is a particularly vulnerable time for patients with pre-existing headache disorders. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of the ...

    Authors: Qiaoyu Gong, Shuping Liu, Ruiting Li, Lihua Yao and Zheman Xiao

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:224

    Content type: Research

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  26. Since subjects with Rett syndrome (RTT) focus their attention mainly on the faces of people with whom they interact, in this study the role of a human-like smart interactive agent (an avatar) in enhancing cogn...

    Authors: Rosa Angela Fabio, Giorgia Pergolizzi, Andrea Nucita, Giancarlo Iannizzotto and Tindara Caprì

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:223

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Presentation with massive systemic embolization as the initial manifestation of occult malignancy is infrequent. The standard management of cancer-related arterial thromboembolism has not yet been established.

    Authors: Zheng Wang, Jiangyong Miao, Lina Wang, Ying Liu, Hui Ji, Xiangjian Zhang and Lili Cui

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:221

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  28. Retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukoencephalopathy and systemic manifestations (RVCL-S) is an adult-onset rare monogenic microvasculopathy. Its typical neuroimaging features are punctate white matter lesio...

    Authors: Yuying Yan, Shuai Jiang, Ruilin Wang, Xiang Wang, Peng Li and Bo Wu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:219

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  29. Cognitive impairment is one of the common features of multiple sclerosis (MS). Despite high prevalence, cognitive decline is often overlooked by neurologists. The Brief International Cognitive Assessment for M...

    Authors: Nazibrola Botchorishvili, Nino Shiukashvili, Nina Mikeladze, Ann Dzagnidze, Nino Mikava, Maia Tighashvili and Marina Janelidze

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:218

    Content type: Research

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  30. Lacosamide (LCM) is the antiepileptic drug approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2008 that facilitates slow activation of the voltage-gated sodium channels. Neutropenia and cardiac events includ...

    Authors: Makoto Shibata, Reona Hoshino, Chisato Shimizu, Masayuki Sato, Natsumi Furuta and Yoshio Ikeda

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:217

    Content type: Case report

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  31. The concept of clinical ethics consultation (CECs) was implemented to provide support in ethical controversies in clinical settings and are offered in at least every second hospital in Germany. Neurological di...

    Authors: Benjamin Ilse, Bernd Alt-Epping, Albrecht Günther, Jan Liman and Alfred Simon

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:216

    Content type: Research

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  32. Chronic inflamed tissue in nasal cavity is a rare complication of transsphenoidal approach (TSA). Inflamed tissue is rich in blood vessels, which can lead to frequent nosebleeds. In addition, chronic inflammat...

    Authors: Ja Yoon Kim, Yong Bae Kim and Joonho Chung

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:215

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  33. DDMS is a rare disease diagnosed by clinical and radiological characteristics. But the complexity of radiological and clinical manifestations of DDMS has become a challenge diagnostically. To date, the reporte...

    Authors: Bing Wang, Wentao Jiang, Weiqiang Yan, Jianhong Tian, Jianxing Xu, Yulin Li, Yanzhen Zhao, Yi Dai, Guanxun Cheng and Gangqiang Hou

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:213

    Content type: Research

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  34. Primary right brachium pontis germinoma with hypertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD) is extremely rare. A preoperative diagnosis is challenging due to the absence of characterized clinical and neuroimaging fea...

    Authors: Yanong Li, Peng Wang, Jin Feng, Jiayi Wang, Jing Zhang and Xiaoguang Qiu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:210

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  35. Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia and has been identified as a major risk factor for acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Gender differences in the disease process, causative mechanisms and outco...

    Authors: Chase Rathfoot, Camron Edrissi, Carolyn Breauna Sanders, Krista Knisely, Nicolas Poupore and Thomas Nathaniel

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:209

    Content type: Research

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  36. Cerebrovascular disorders have occurred more frequently in some Central Nervous System (CNS) disorders, such as epilepsy. Some CNS drugs have been associated with increased stroke risk. Our aim was to estimate...

    Authors: Maria Giner-Soriano, Josep Ramon Marsal, Ainhoa Gomez-Lumbreras and Rosa Morros

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:208

    Content type: Research

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  37. Treating chordoma through surgery alone is often ineffective. Thus, surgery often performed with irradiation, with a reported 5-year survival rate of 60–75%. The clinical course varies, and disease rarity prev...

    Authors: Yoshikazu Ogawa, Hidefumi Jokura and Teiji Tominaga

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:207

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Ala97Ser transthyretin amyloidosis-associated polyneuropathy (ATTRA97S-PN) is a rare form of inherited polyneuropathy, usually manifesting with late-onset (> 50) progressive polyneuropathy. This mutation is mo...

    Authors: Nath Pasutharnchat, Chamaiporn Taychargumpoo, Yongkasem Vorasettakarnkij and Jakkrit Amornvit

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:206

    Content type: Research

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  39. Heterogenous central nervous system (CNS) neurologic manifestations of polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) are underrecognized. We review three cases of patients with PAN that illustrate a range of nervous system patho...

    Authors: Cathra Halabi, Erika K. Williams, Ramin A. Morshed, Mauro Caffarelli, Christine Anastasiou, Tarik Tihan, Daniel Cooke, Adib A. Abla, Christopher F. Dowd, Vinil Shah, Sharon Chung and Megan B. Richie

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:205

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

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