- Research article
- Open Access
The role of hybrid FDG-PET/MRI on decision-making in presurgical evaluation of drug-resistant epilepsy
BMC Neurology volume 21, Article number: 363 (2021)
When MRI fails to detect a potentially epileptogenic lesion, the chance of a favorable outcome after epilepsy surgery becomes significantly lower (from 60 to 90% to 20–65%). Hybrid FDG-PET/MRI may provide additional information for identifying the epileptogenic zone. We aimed to investigate the possible effect of the introduction of hybrid FDG-PET/MRI into the algorithm of the decision-making in both lesional and non-lesional drug-resistant epileptic patients.
In a prospective study of patients suffering from drug-resistant focal epilepsy, 30 nonlesional and 30 lesional cases with discordant presurgical results were evaluated using hybrid FDG-PET/MRI.
The hybrid imaging revealed morphological lesion in 18 patients and glucose hypometabolism in 29 patients within the nonlesional group. In the MRI positive group, 4 patients were found to be nonlesional, and in 9 patients at least one more epileptogenic lesion was discovered, while in another 17 cases the original lesion was confirmed by means of hybrid FDG-PET/MRI. As to the therapeutic decision-making, these results helped to indicate resective surgery instead of intracranial EEG (iEEG) monitoring in 2 cases, to avoid any further invasive diagnostic procedures in 7 patients, and to refer 21 patients for iEEG in the nonlesional group. Hybrid FDG-PET/MRI has also significantly changed the original therapeutic plans in the lesional group. Prior to the hybrid imaging, a resective surgery was considered in 3 patients, and iEEG was planned in 27 patients. However, 3 patients became eligible for resective surgery, 6 patients proved to be inoperable instead of iEEG, and 18 cases remained candidates for iEEG due to the hybrid FDG-PET/MRI. Two patients remained candidates for resective surgery and one patient became not eligible for any further invasive intervention.
The results of hybrid FDG-PET/MRI significantly altered the original plans in 19 of 60 cases. The introduction of hybrid FDG-PET/MRI into the presurgical evaluation process had a potential modifying effect on clinical decision-making.
Trial registry: Scientific Research Ethics Committee of the Medical Research Council of Hungary. Trial registration number: 008899/2016/OTIG. Date of registration: 08 February 2016.
Epilepsy is one of the most prevalent neurological diseases with an incidence of 0.4–1 ‰ and a prevalence of 0.4–1% [1, 2]. Approximately 23–30% of the patients are drug-resistant [3,4,5,6]. In these cases surgical resection constitutes the best therapeutic option towards achieving seizure freedom [7,8,9,10,11]. In 60–70% of the patients, noninvasive video-EEG monitor and cranial MRI can be conclusive regarding resective surgery without additional investigation(s). In the remaining proportion of the patients, invasive EEG (iEEG) exploration with intracranial electrodes (subdural or depth electrodes) plays a pivotal role in nonlesional drug-resistant epilepsy, or temporal or extratemporal lesional epilepsy with discordant electro-clinical results [12,13,14,15,16]. Epileptologists might have 4 reasonable options for patients with focal onset medically intractable epilepsy: (1) resective surgery without iEEG investigation, (2) iEEG exploration, (3) neuromodulation therapies such as vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) or deep brain stimulation (DBS), (4) giving new antiepileptic drug(s). Among these possibilities, resective surgery can achieve a decidedly higher seizure-freedom rate than the others [9,10,11]. When MRI fails to detect a potentially epileptogenic lesion, the chances of a favourable outcome after epilepsy surgery become significantly lower (from 60 to 90% to 20–65%) [10, 11]. Also in this workflow, FDG-PET/MRI coregistration can be utilized to guide a second look at MRI studies previously reported as nonlesional, thus underpinning decision-making . Some epilepsy centers reported the role of PET/MRI coregistration was finding lesion(s) in nonlesional drug-resistant epilepsy patients [18,19,20,21]. Another option is the hybrid FDG-PET/MRI in preparation for epilepsy surgery in both lesional and nonlesional cases, providing additional sensitivity for detecting possible epileptic foci [22,23,24].
The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible effect of the results of hybrid FDG-PET/MRI on the decision-making by the epileptologist in both lesional and nonlesional drug-resistant epileptic patients. For this purpose, we selected two drug-resistant epileptic patient groups of the same size (either lesional or nonlesional cases), where the noninvasive video-EEG monitor and brain MRI were not conclusive regarding the resective surgery. We hypothesized that the results of hybrid FDG-PET/MRI may affect the initial judgement of the presurgical team: (1) the patient is eligible for iEEG exploration; or (2) eligible for resective surgery; or (3) the patient is not eligible for any further invasive procedure. Thus, in the present study, findings related to the alterations of decision-making were analyzed in detail with respect to imagery results (FDG-PET and MRI).
We prospectively selected 60 adult patients (35 males, 25 females, mean age: 33.02, range:18–55 years) undergoing pre-surgical evaluation for drug-resistant, focal-onset epilepsy at two tertiary academic medical centers: (1) Department of Neurology, University of Pécs and (2) National Institute of Clinical Neurosciences, Budapest. Of the patients, all suffering from focal-onset epilepsy, 52 were right-handed and 8 were left-handed. Patients with previous history of epilepsy surgery were not included. Patients were divided into groups based on whether they were lesional (30 patients, for details please see Table 2) with discordant investigational results or nonlesional (30 patients, for details please see Table 1).
MRI examinations at this stage of presurgical evaluation were acquired on 3 Tesla scanners (3 T Magnetom TIM Trio, Siemens) and contained the following sequences: i) 2D T2-weighted axial turbospin-echo (TSE) (slice thickness 4.0 mm, TE/TR: 74/6450 ms, 120° flip angle, matrix 280 × 320 interpolated to 560 × 640, voxel size: 0.34 × 0.34 × 4 mm, scan duration 0:52 s); ii) 2D T2-weighted coronal TSE (slice thickness 3.0 mm, TE/TR: 93/6980 ms, 120° flip angle, matrix 280 × 320 interpolated to 560 × 640, voxel size: 0.34 × 0.34 × 4 mm, scan duration 1:45 min); iii) 2D T2-weighted coronal TSE fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) (slice thickness 3.0 mm, TE/TR: 123/9000 ms, 120° flip angle, matrix 192 × 256, voxel size: 0.86 × 0.86 × 3 mm, scan duration 3:36 min); iv) 3D sagittal isotropic Magnetization Prepared Rapid Acquisition Gradient Echo (MPRAGE) (slice thickness 0.98 mm, TE/TR: 2.53/1900 ms, 9° flip angle, matrix 256 × 256, voxel size: 0.98 × 0.98 × 0.98 mm, scan duration 8:50 min); v) 3D axial susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) (slice thickness 1.5 mm, TE/TR: 20/27 ms, 15° flip angle, matrix 182 × 256, voxel size: 0.9 × 0.9 × 1.5 mm, scan duration 4:05 min); vi) 2D axial EPI diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) (slice thickness 3.0 mm, TE/TR: 91/4800 ms, b-values 0, 500 and 1000 s/mm2, matrix 168 × 192, voxel size: 1.2 × 1.2 × 3 mm, scan duration 2:30 s) and vii) 3D axial time-of-flight (TOF) MRA (slice thickness 0.7 mm, TE/TR: 3.86/22 ms, matrix 202 × 384, voxel size: 0.58 × 0.58 × 0.7 mm, scan duration 6:12 s).
All patients signed a written consent approved by Scientific Research Ethics Committee of the Medical Research Council of Hungary (008899/2016/OTIG).
Procedure and material
All of the patients underwent presurgical examinations: routine epilepsy clinic visits, noninvasive video-EEG monitoring, cranial MRI following the standard epilepsy protocol [25,26,27,28] and clinical semiology was evaluated by two presurgical teams. Before FDG-PET/MRI became available, some patients underwent PET/CT when MRI was negative or clinical and EEG findings suggested multiple seizure foci. An algorithm describing the steps of presurgical evaluation at our centers can be seen on Fig. 1. A total of 60 patients underwent pre-surgical evaluations with hybrid FDG-PET/MR from June 2016 until January 2018.
A hybrid FDG-PET/MRI system (Siemens Biograph mMR, Siemens Heathineers, Erlangen, Germany) consisting of 3 T Verio magnet and MR compatible LSO crystal based APD PET detector system allowing simultaneous PET/MRI acquisition was used. The device was settled in Baka József Diagnostic Center, Kaposi Mór Hospital, Kaposvár, Hungary.
The fluorine-18 fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ([18F] FDG) PET imaging was performed according to the guideline of European Association of Nuclear Medicine Neuroimaging Committee . All patients fasted for at least 6 h before the scan and blood glucose levels were checked prior to FDG administration. Before the scanning procedure the patients were asked to empty their bladder and were positioned comfortably in a quiet, dark room equipped with a video camera. Then a cannula for intravenous administration was placed. A 2 h-long supervision of the patient and 30 min of video EEG recording was performed before the administration of FDG (bolus of 200 MBq i.v.). We maintained the video-EEG monitoring for the whole uptake phase of FDG to ensure interictal state. If any seizure activities were recorded during video-EEG monitoring, the FDG-PET/MRI investigation was postponed to the following day. The PET/MRI scan was started 60 min after the FDG administration. For the prevention of movement artifacts, we informed the patients that they should avoid voluntary movements in the scanner. After the scanning procedure the patients were further supervised for two half–lives of the radioisotope decay (ca. 240 min). To ensure complete simultaneous PET coverage, a 20 min and a 35 min list mode PET acquisition were applied. For PET attenuation correction purposes vendor-provided T2 ultrashort echo time (UTE) sequence was used, μMaps were generated automatically. From the PET RAW DATA a 20 min and a 35 min static image dataset were produced. Attenuation-corrected and uncorrected transaxial slices were generated. For PET image reconstruction OP-OSEM method was applied containing PSF correction (3 iterations, 21 subsets, 4 mm post-recon Gaussian filtering, 344 × 344 imaging matrix).
For MR imaging, the standard epilepsy protocol was used [25,26,27,28], comprising the following sequences: i) axial T2-weighted sequence used for PET attenuation correction (T2 UTE MRAC) (TR = 11.94 ms; TE1 = 0.07 ms, TE2 = 2.46 ms, flip angle = 10°; voxel size: 1.6 × 1.6 × 1.6 mm); ii) 2D T2-weighted axial TSE (slice thickness 4.0 mm, TE/TR: 106/6000 ms, 150° flip angle, matrix 358 × 448, voxel size: 0.5 × 0.5 × 4 mm, scan duration 4:08 s); iii) 2D T2-weighted coronal TSE (slice thickness 3.0 mm, TE/TR: 89/6770 ms, 150° flip angle, matrix 307 × 348, voxel size: 0.5 × 0.5 × 3 mm, scan duration 3:04 s); iv) 2D T2-weighted coronal TSE FLAIR (slice thickness 3.0 mm, TE/TR: 128/9000 ms, 120° flip angle, matrix 192 × 256, voxel size: 0.9 × 0.9 × 3 mm, scan duration 5:44 s); v) axial diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) (slice thickness 4.0 mm, TE/TR: 95/3600 ms, matrix 128 × 128, voxel size: 1.7 × 1.7 × 4 mm, scan duration 3:59 s); vi) axial T2* (slice thickness 4.0 mm, TE/TR: 19.9/620 ms, 20° flip angle, matrix 205 × 256, voxel size: 0.4 × 0.4 × 4 mm, scan duration 2:09 s); vii) 3D T2-weighted sagittal gradient recalled echo (GRE) (slice thickness 1.0 mm, TE/TR: 409/3200 ms, 120° flip angle, matrix 261 × 256, voxel size: 0.5 × 0.5 × 1 mm, scan duration 4:43 s); viii) 3D T2-weighted sagittal GRE FLAIR (slice thickness 1.0 mm, TE/TR: 395/5000 ms, 120° flip angle, matrix 261 × 256, voxel size: 0.5 × 0.5 × 1 mm, scan duration 5:52 s) and ix) 3D sagittal MPRAGE (slice thickness 1.0 mm, TE/TR: 2.98/2300 ms, 9° flip angle, matrix 240 × 256, voxel size: 1.0 × 1.0 × 1.2 mm, scan duration 9:14 s).
MRI (both the prior studies and those with the accompanying PET) and PET studies were downloaded and blindly and separately re-interpreted, by two neuroradiologists (for MRI: PB and ZV) and nuclear medicine physicians (for PET: KB and ZT). The two MR studies were interpreted separately from each other by each of the neuroradiologists (PB, ZV). Finally, simultaneously acquired MRI and PET images were evaluated on fused images, and clinical decisions were done with these data.
New variables: MR status change, additional information provided by PET comparing to MRI and clinical decision according to PET/MRI results
MR status change
We created five new categories to describe the changes:
nn: The patient was nonlesional prior to the study and he/she also remained nonlesional in this study.
np: The patient was nonlesional prior to the study and changed to lesional in this study.
nc: The patient was suspect for lesional prior to the study but the lesion was not confirmed in this study.
pp.: The patient was lesional prior to the study and the study confirmed the original lesion.
pp.+: The patient was lesional prior to the study and the study both confirmed the original lesion and found new epileptogenic lesion(s).
Additional information provided by PET comparing to MRI (indicating the localisation of glucose hypometabolism in nonlesional case as well as in lesional case, related to the MRI-lesion)
A. Positive, revealing unilateral area(s) of hypometabolism in a nonlesional case.
B. Positive, revealing bilateral area(s) of hypometabolism in a nonlesional case.
C. Positive, ipsilateral, related to the MRI-identified lesion in a lesional case.
D. Positive, ipsilateral, but not related to the MRI-identified lesion, pointing to new area(s) within the same hemisphere in a lesional case.
E. Positive, contralateral to MRI-lesion in a lesional case.
F. Positive, bilateral in lesional case in a lesional case.
Clinical decisions according to PET/MRI results
The clinical decisions made by a consensus of the two multidisciplinary epilepsy surgery teams at two tertiary academic medical centers were classified into six categories:
: Remained as iEEG candidate.
: Resective surgery is available instead of iEEG.
: Considered as not eligible for any further invasive procedures instead of iEEG.
: Became iEEG candidate instead of resective surgery.
: Considered as not eligible for any further invasive procedures instead of resective surgery
: Remained as candidate for resective surgery.
We applied the Chi-square independence test to determine if there is a significant relationship between “MRI status change” and “Additional information provided by PET comparing to MRI” and used Pearson residuals to highlight the most contributing between these category pairs. Because of the small sample size, we performed Fisher’s exact test to confirm the result of the Chi-square test.
Hybrid PET/MRI examination revealed that 18 of 30 patients were found to have new specific epileptogenic MRI-lesion(s), while 29 of 30 patients had an abnormal FDG uptake. Two lesions were found in five patients. Hybrid PET/MRI helped to indicate resective surgery instead of iEEG monitoring in 2 patients due to congruent MRI, PET, semiological and EEG data; resective surgery was performed in both cases with Engel I outcome (for details, please see Table 1). In seven patients, hybrid PET/MRI enabled us to decide to avoid any further invasive diagnostic procedures due to multiple electroclinical and/or hypometabolic epileptic foci with MRI-negativity (6 patients) or negative imagery (both PET and MRI) results (1 patient). Of the remaining 21 patients referred to iEEG due to discordant electroclinical and PET/MRI results, in 11 cases one MRI-target was revealed; in 5 patients two potential epileptogenic lesions were found; while 5 cases remained nonlesional. In 3 of 11 patients of whom one MRI-target was revealed iEEG was performed concluding in resective surgery in 2 cases with Engel III and Engel IV outcome; the remaining case was considered as not operable and did not concede to perform DBS/VNS implantation.
Assessing the data comparing the structural high-quality MRI from hybrid FDG PET/MRI (“MRI status change”) with the information providing the combination of glucose hypometabolism with structural data (“Additional information provided by PET comparing to MRI”), the Chi-square independence test and Fisher’s exact test showed a significant association (p < 10e-6 and p < 10e-10, respectively). The Pearson residuals suggested that the group “np” (the patients were nonlesional prior to the study and changed to lesional in this study) and group “A” (PET revealed unilateral area(s) of hypometabolism in nonlesional cases) have a strong positive association as well as between group “nn” (patients were nonlesional prior to the study and they also remained nonlesional in this study) and group “B” (PET revealed bilateral area(s) of hypometabolism in nonlesional cases).
Two patients became eligible for resective surgery, because of concordant electroclinical and hybrid FDG-PET/MRI results, which confirmed the MRI-lesion visualized prior to this study. In one patient any further invasive investigation was found to be contraindicated due to discordant electroclinical and PET data; but more importantly, because of altered MRI-status (nonlesional).
iEEG was planned in 27 patients, of whom three patients became eligible for resective surgery because of concordant hybrid FDG-PET/MRI results and electroclinical data; resective surgery was performed with Engel I outcome in 1 case and Engel II outcome in 2 cases (for details, please see Table 2).
Six of the remaining 27 patients proved to be inoperable instead of iEEG, 4 of these patients were found not to be confirmed lesional. In 3 patients, any further invasive procedure was contraindicated. Eighteen patients remained candidates for iEEG due to discordant electroclinical and FDG-PET/MRI results. In 6 of 18 patients iEEG was already performed concluding in resective surgery in all cases with Engel I (3 cases) and Engel II (3 cases) outcome.
Statistical analysis of the data comparing the structural high-quality MRI from hybrid FDG PET/MRI with the information providing the combination of glucose hypometabolism with structural data did not reveal strong association in any case in lesional group.
In the case of drug-resistant focal-onset epilepsy, the most important issue in the algorithm of the decision-making is to judge whether a drug-resistant epilepsy patient is eligible for (1) resective surgery, (2) iEEG monitoring, or, (3) not eligible for any further invasive procedures [7, 8].
PET/MRI coregistration has long been utilized in epilepsy centers and has been useful to guide a second look at MRI previously reported as nonlesional, thus guiding decision-making . In an earlier publication, PET/MRI coregistration helped to find obvious lesion in 6 of 10 nonlesional drug-resistant epilepsy patients . In a pediatric study, 31 consecutive pediatric nonlesional epilepsy patients were reported, of whom nine showed subtle pathologic abnormalities after second MRI-reading guided by PET/MRI coregistration . In another study, 35 consecutive epilepsy patients with refractory focal epilepsy were investigated: structural MRI showed no lesion in 15 patients, of whom PET/MRI coregistration detected hypometabolism in 7 cases that was undetected on PET alone . In a recent paper, 103 consecutive epileptic patients with FCD type 2 were reported, of whom 61 patients were lesional, while 42 cases were dubious or negative. The additional value of PET/MRI coregistration in these 42 patients was predominant, because MRI localized FCD type 2 in 35 of 42 patients .
Here we report the role of hybrid FDG-PET/MRI on the decision-making workflow. Thus, in the present study, findings related to the changes in possible decisions of the presurgical team were analyzed in detail with respect to separate imaging results (FDG-PET and MRI) in both lesional and nonlesional epilepsy patients.
Our main finding is that hybrid FDG-PET/MRI decidedly influenced the decision-making of the presurgical team significantly. Its cardinal effect was the increased sensitivity of brain MRI in 60% of nonlesional patients, which is a principal component in judging the chance for seizure-freedom (nonlesional cases: 20–65% vs. lesional cases: 60–90%) [10, 11].
In an earlier pilot study using hybrid PET/MRI, 11 epileptic patients were investigated by FDG-PET/MRI without gross structural abnormalities that could interfere with image processing. Unfortunately, it is not clear from this publication, whether or not new structural lesions were found .
In another pilot hybrid FDG-PET/MRI study, of the twenty-nine patients assessed who underwent epilepsy surgery evaluation, in four cases new structural MR lesions were detected with the aid of FDG-PET findings, and one patient showed a new abnormal hypometabolism without any MRI abnormality. All new FDG-PET/MR lesions were clinically significant with concordant EEG and/or SPECT results as potential epileptic foci . Recently, the same research group reported that hybrid FDG-PET/MR identified new structural or functional lesions in 10 of 74 patients .
Our study aimed to clarify the possible role of hybrid FDG-PET/MRI on decision-making in drug-resistant partial-onset epilepsy patients as well as to compare this effect with earlier PET/MRI coregistration studies.
In our study, the hybrid FDG-PET/MRI revealed a new morphological lesion in 18 patients and PET hypometabolism in 29 patients within the nonlesional group. In this patient cohort, PET revealed unilateral area(s) of hypometabolism. However, PET revealed bilateral area(s) of hypometabolism in those patients who were nonlesional prior to the study and also remained nonlesional in this study. These two correlations were proved to be statistically significant.
Due to hybrid FDG-PET/MRI results, resective surgery was indicated instead of iEEG monitoring in 2 cases with an Engel I outcome; hybrid FDG-PET/MRI results helped to avoid any further invasive diagnostic procedures in 7 patients. The remaining 21 patients were referred to iEEG. In 16 of the remaining 21 patients, novel specific epileptogenic MRI-lesion(s) were revealed, proposing potential target(s) for iEEG monitoring, hopefully increasing the chance of successful identification of the epileptogenic zone. Three of them were underwent iEEG and 2 of them resective surgery with Engel III and IV outcome.
As we showed in Methods section, (beyond better image quality/resolution) a major difference was the application of 3D FLAIR sequence which was lacking in the earlier imaging protocol. This might in part explain the newly identified specific epileptogenic lesions in a significant proportion of the nonlesional group. Nine of these 18 patients showed the newly detected lesions exclusively on the 3D FLAIR images. Another possible explanation is the growing body of experience of our neuroradiologists together with the PET-readings (and these data were new information for them) and thus their increased sensitivity. Finally, the quality of MRI images deriving from the new hybrid PET/MRI systems was much better. These factors combined might explain the 60% difference (18 patients/30 nonlesional patients).
Moreover, in nine of the 30 cases, findings of hybrid FDG-PET/MRI resulted in a significant change in decision-making (iEEG monitoring, resective surgery or not eligible for any further invasive procedures) (Figs. 2 and 3).
Hybrid FDG-PET/MRI disclosed at least one new morphological lesion in 9 patients and glucose hypometabolism in 30 patients within the lesional group.
Four patients found to be nonlesional in this study. In 17 cases the original lesion was confirmed. As we mentioned above, the major difference was the application of 3D FLAIR sequence which was lacking in the earlier imaging protocol, which might in part explain the newly identified specific epileptogenic lesions in the lesional group.
Hybrid FDG-PET/MRI has also significantly changed the original therapeutic plans in the lesional group. Three patients became eligible for resective surgery – two of them were operated with an Engel II outcome. Six patients were considered as not eligible for any further invasive procedure, and 18 cases still remained as candidates for iEEG. iEEG was already performed in 6 of 18 patients concluding in resective surgery with Engel I outcome in 3 cases and Engel II outcome in remaining 3 cases. Two patients remained as candidates for resective surgery - one of them was operated with an Engel I outcome. In both groups the new anatomical or functional lesions were found to be clinically significant.
In the lesional group, hybrid FDG-PET/MRI investigation altered the the epileptologist’s original decision in 10 of 30 cases: resective surgery, iEEG, or not eligible for any further invasive procedures (Figs. 4 and 5).
Our study was undertaken to evaluate the potential improvement on decision-making using a hybrid FDG-PET/MRI scanner in epilepsy surgery algorithm, compared to separate 3 T MRI and electroclinical data. The results of hybrid FDG-PET/MRI significantly altered the original plans in 19 of 60 cases. In the nonlesional group, in 18 cases, novel specific epileptogenic MRI-lesions were revealed, proposing potential targets for iEEG monitoring, thus hopefully increasing the chance of successfully identifying the epileptogenic zone in the most difficult epilepsy patients cohort.
Availability of data and materials
The datasets used and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
Deep brain stimulation
- [18F] FDG:
Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery
Gradient recalled echo
Magnetization Prepared Rapid Acquisition Gradient Echo
Susceptibility weighted imaging
Ultrashort echo time
Vagus nerve stimulation
The patient was nonlesional prior to the study and he/she also remained nonlesional in this study
The patient was nonlesional prior to the study and changed to lesional in this study
The patient was suspect for lesional prior to the study but the lesion was not confirmed in this study
The patient was lesional prior to the study and the study confirmed the original lesion
- pp. + :
The patient was lesional prior to the study and the study both confirmed the original lesion and found new epileptogenic lesion(s)
Positive, revealing unilateral area(s) of hypometabolism in a nonlesional case
Positive, revealing bilateral area(s) of hypometabolism in a nonlesional case
Positive, ipsilateral, related to the MRI-identified lesion in a lesional case
Positive, ipsilateral, but not related to the MRI-identified lesion, pointing to new area(s) within the same hemisphere in a lesional case
Positive, contralateral to MRI-lesion in a lesional case
Positive, bilateral in lesional case in a lesional case
Remained as iEEG candidate
Resective surgery is available instead of iEEG
Considered as not eligible for any further invasive procedures instead of iEEG
Became iEEG candidate instead of resective surgery
Considered as not eligible for any further invasive procedures instead of resective surgery
Remained as candidate for resective surgery
Bell GS, Sander JW. The epidemiology of epilepsy: the size of the problem. Seizure. 2001;10(4):306–16. https://doi.org/10.1053/seiz.2001.0584.
Ekman M, Forsgren L. Economic evidence in epilepsy: a review. Eur J Health Econ. 2004;5(SUPPL. 1):36–42.
Banerjee PN, Filippi D, Allen HW. The descriptive epidemiology of epilepsy-a review. Epilepsy Res. 2009;85(1):31–45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2009.03.003.
Marson A, Jacoby A, Johnson A, Kim L, Gamble C, Chadwick D. Immediate versus deferred antiepileptic drug treatment for early epilepsy and single seizures: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2005;365(9476):2007–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(05)66694-9.
Mula M, Cock HR. More than seizures: improving the lives of people with refractory epilepsy. Eur J Neurol. 2015;22(1):24–30. https://doi.org/10.1111/ene.12603.
Remy S, Beck H. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of pharmacoresistance in epilepsy. Brain. 2006;129(1):18–35. https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awh682.
De Tisi J, Bell GS, Peacock JL, McEvoy AW, Harkness WF, Sander JW, et al. The long-term outcome of adult epilepsy surgery, patterns of seizure remission, and relapse: a cohort study. Lancet. 2011;378(9800):1388–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60890-8.
Taussig D, Montavont A, Isnard J. Invasive EEG explorations. Neurophysiol Clin. 2015;45(1):113–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neucli.2014.11.006.
Kwon CS, Neal J, Telléz-Zenteno J, Metcalfe A, Fitzgerald K, Hernandez-Ronquillo L, et al. Resective focal epilepsy surgery - has selection of candidates changed? A systematic review. Epilepsy Res. 2016;122:37–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2016.02.007.
Téllez-Zenteno JF, Ronquillo LH, Moien-Afshari F, Wiebe S. Surgical outcomes in lesional and non-lesional epilepsy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Epilepsy Res. 2010;89(2-3):310–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2010.02.007.
Noe K, Sulc V, Wong-Kisiel L, Wirrell E, Van Gompel JJ, Wetjen N, et al. Long-term outcomes after nonlesional extratemporal lobe epilepsy surgery. JAMA Neurol. 2013;70(8):1003–8. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2013.209.
Alarcón G, Valentín A, Watt C, Selway RP, Lacruz ME, Elwes RDC, et al. Is it worth pursuing surgery for epilepsy in patients with normal neuroimaging? J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2006;77(4):474–80. https://doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.2005.077289.
Bien CG, Raabe AL, Schramm J, Becker A, Urbach H, Elger CE. Trends in presurgical evaluation and surgical treatment of epilepsy at one Centre from 1988-2009. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2013;84(1):54–61. https://doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2011-301763.
Chapman K. Seizure outcome after epilepsy surgery in patients with normal preoperative MRI. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005;76(5):710–3. https://doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.2003.026757.
Duncan JS. Imaging in the surgical treatment of epilepsy. Nat Rev Neurol. 2010;6(10):537–50. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrneurol.2010.131.
Jayakar P, Gotman J, Harvey AS, Palmini A, Tassi L, Schomer D, et al. Diagnostic utility of invasive EEG for epilepsy surgery: indications, modalities, and techniques. Epilepsia. 2016;57(11):1735–47. https://doi.org/10.1111/epi.13515.
Lee KK, Salamon N. [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission tomography and MR imaging coregistration for presurgical evaluation of medically refractory epilepsy. Am J Neuroradiol. 2009;30(10):1811–6. https://doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A1637.
Salamon N, Kung J, Shaw SJ, Koo J, Koh S, Wu JY, et al. FDG-PET/MRI coregistration improves detection of cortical dysplasia in patients with epilepsy. Neurology. 2008;71(20):1594–601. https://doi.org/10.1212/01.wnl.0000334752.41807.2f.
Rubí S, Setoain X, Donaire A, Bargalló N, Sanmartí F, Carreño M, et al. Validation of FDG-PET/MRI coregistration in nonlesional refractory childhood epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2011;52(12):2216–24. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1528-1167.2011.03295.x.
Fernández S, Donaire A, Serès E, Setoain X, Bargalló N, Falcón C, et al. PET/MRI and PET/MRI/SISCOM coregistration in the presurgical evaluation of refractory focal epilepsy. Epilepsy Res. 2015;111:1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2014.12.011.
Desarnaud S, Mellerio C, Semah F, Laurent A, Landre E, Devaux B, et al. Correction to: 18F-FDG PET in drug-resistant epilepsy due to focal cortical dysplasia type 2: additional value of electroclinical data and coregistration with MRI. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2018;45(8):1465. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00259-018-4022-3.
Oldan JD, Shin HW, Khandani AH, Zamora C, Benefield T, Jewells V. Subsequent experience in hybrid PET-MRI for evaluation of refractory focal onset epilepsy. Seizure. 2018;61:128–34.
Ding Y-S, Chen B-B, Glielmi C, Friedman K, Devinsky O. A pilot study in epilepsy patients using simultaneous PET/MR. Am J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2014;4(5):459–70. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25143864%0Ahttp://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=PMC4138140.
Shin HW, Jewells V, Sheikh A, Zhang J, Zhu H, An H, et al. Initial experience in hybrid PET-MRI for evaluation of refractory focal onset epilepsy. Seizure. 2015;31:1–4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2015.06.010.
Karis JP; Expert Panel on Neurologic Imaging. Epilepsy. Am J Neuroradiol. 2008;29(6):1222–24.
Von Oertzen J, Urbach H, Jungbluth S, Kurthen M, Reuber M, Fernández G, et al. Standard magnetic resonance imaging is inadequate for patients with refractory focal epilepsy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2002;73(6):643–7. https://doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.73.6.643.
Saini J, Singh A, Kesavadas C, Thomas B, Rathore C, Bahuleyan B, et al. Role of three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (3D FLAIR) and proton density magnetic resonance imaging for the detection and evaluation of lesion extent of focal cortical dysplasia in patients with refractory epilepsy. Acta Radiol. 2010;51(2):218–25. https://doi.org/10.3109/02841850903433805.
Tschampa HJ, Urbach H, Malter M, Surges R, Greschus S, Gieseke J. Magnetic resonance imaging of focal cortical dysplasia: comparison of 3D and 2D fluid attenuated inversion recovery sequences at 3T. Epilepsy Res. 2015;116:8–14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2015.07.004.
Silva L, Amitai Y, Connors B. Intrinsic Oscillations of Neocortex Generated by Layer 5 Pyramidal Neurons. Science (80- ). 1991;251:432–5.
This article was supported by the Hungarian Brain Research Program (2017-1.2.1-NKP-2017-00002), NKFIH EFOP-3.6.2-16-2017-00008, and GINOP-2.3.3-15-2016-00032 government-based funds. Our research was financed by Dr. József Baka Diagnostic, Radiation Oncology, Research and Teaching Center, University of Kaposvár and MEDICOPUS Healthcare Provider and Public Nonprofit Ltd., Kaposvár, PET Center, University of Kaposvár.
This article was supported by the Hungarian Brain Research Program (2017–1.2.1-NKP-2017-00002), NKFIH EFOP-3.6.2-16-2017-00008, and GINOP-2.3.3-15-2016-00032 government-based funds covering the costs of analysis, and interpretation of data. Our research was financed by Dr. József Baka Diagnostic, Radiation Oncology, Research and Teaching Center, University of Kaposvár and MEDICOPUS Healthcare Provider and Public Nonprofit Ltd., Kaposvár, PET Center, University of Kaposvár, covering the costs of the design of the study and collection and analysis of data (approved by Scientific Research Ethics Committee of the Medical Research Council of Hungary, 008899/2016/OTIG).
Ethics approval and consent to participate
We confirm that we have read the Journal’s position on issues involved in ethical publication and affirm that this report is consistent with those guidelines. This study was approved by Scientific Research Ethics Committee of the Medical Research Council of Hungary (No. 008899/2016/OTIG). Written informed consent was obtained from all participants.
Consent for publication
Neither of the authors has any conflict of interest concerning the materials or methods used in this study or the findings specified in this paper to disclose.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Marton Toth and Daniel Fabo first and senior author.
About this article
Cite this article
Tóth, M., Barsi, P., Tóth, Z. et al. The role of hybrid FDG-PET/MRI on decision-making in presurgical evaluation of drug-resistant epilepsy. BMC Neurol 21, 363 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12883-021-02352-z
- Drug-resistant epilepsy
- Hybrid FDG-PET/MRI
- Clinical decision-making
- Preoperative workflow
- Epilepsy surgery