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  1. Cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms are highly prevalent after Intracerebral Hemorrhage (ICH). We leveraged Latent Profile Analysis (LPA) to identify profiles for cognitive decline and depression onse...

    Authors: Sophia Keins, Jessica R. Abramson, Juan Pablo Castello, Marco Pasi, Andreas Charidimou, Christina Kourkoulis, Zora DiPucchio, Kristin Schwab, Christopher D. Anderson, M. Edip Gurol, Steven M. Greenberg, Jonathan Rosand, Anand Viswanathan and Alessandro Biffi
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:481
  2. Late-stage Parkinson’s disease (PD) often presents with neuropsychiatric symptoms such as dementia, psychosis, excessive daytime sleepiness, apathy, depression, and anxiety. However, neuropsychiatric symptoms ...

    Authors: Shin-ichiro Kubo, Tomoyasu Matsubara, Takeshi Taguchi, Renpei Sengoku, Atsuko Takeuchi and Yuko Saito
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:480
  3. The diagnosis and therapy of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) tends to focus on neurological symptoms, but less attention has been paid the occurrence of extracerebral lesion such as the my...

    Authors: Kenya Oguchi, Kazuhiro Fukushima, Akinori Nakamura and Yo-ichi Takei
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:479
  4. Whether liver fibrosis is associated with increased risk for substantial hematoma expansion (HE) after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is still uncertain. We evaluated the association between various liver fibr...

    Authors: Huan Wang, Jiongxing Wu, Xue Yang, Junfeng Liu, Wendan Tao, Zilong Hao, Bo Wu, Ming Liu, Shihong Zhang and Deren Wang
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:478
  5. Identifying modifiable risk factors for cognitive impairment in the early stages of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and estimating their impact on cognitive status may help prevent dementia (PDD) and the design of co...

    Authors: Saul Martínez-Horta, Helena Bejr-Kasem, Andrea Horta-Barba, Berta Pascual-Sedano, Diego Santos-García, Teresa de Deus-Fonticoba, Silvia Jesús, Miquel Aguilar, Lluis Planellas, Juan García-Caldentey, Nuria Caballol, Bárbara Vives-Pastor, Jorge Hernández-Vara, Iria Cabo-Lopez, Lydia López-Manzanares, Isabel González-Aramburu…
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:477
  6. Chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with both ischemic stroke and sedentary behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive abilities of biomarkers of inflammation and immune modula...

    Authors: Katinka Nordheim Alme, Arve Ulvik, Torunn Askim, Jörg Assmus, Tom Eirik Mollnes, Mala Naik, Halvor Næss, Ingvild Saltvedt, Per-Magne Ueland and Anne-Brita Knapskog
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:476
  7. This study aims to evaluate the diagnostic performance of NIHSS extinction and inattention item, compared to the results of the Oxford Cognitive Screen (OCS) heart subtest. Additionally, the possible role of the ...

    Authors: Benedetta Basagni, Bahia Hakiki, Silvia Campagnini, Emilia Salvadori, Antonello Grippo, Anita Paperini, Chiara Castagnoli, Ines Hochleitner, Angela Maria Politi, Paola Gemignani, Irene Eleonora Mosca, Azzurra Franceschini, Enrico Bacci Bonotti, Alessandro Sodero, Andrea Mannini, Leonardo Pellicciari…
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:475
  8. Depending on geographic location, causes of encephalitis, meningoencephalitis and meningitis vary substantially. We aimed to identify the most frequent causes, clinical presentation and long-term outcome of en...

    Authors: Anamaria Ungureanu, Julia van der Meer, Antonela Bicvic, Lena Abbuehl, Gabriele Chiffi, Léonore Jaques, Franziska Suter-Riniker, Stephen L. Leib, Claudio L. A. Bassetti and Anelia Dietmann
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:474
  9. Clinical trials have shown that dexmedetomidine might decrease the occurrence of postoperative delirium after major surgery, but neurosurgical patients were excluded from these studies. We aimed to determine t...

    Authors: Xuan He, Kun-Ming Cheng, Yu-Qing Duan, Shan-Shan Xu, Hao-Ran Gao, Ming-Yue Miao, Hong-Liang Li, Kai Chen, Yan-Lin Yang, Linlin Zhang, Hong-Qiu Gu and Jian-Xin Zhou
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:472
  10. Subacute combined degeneration (SCD) is a neurological complication commonly associated with vitamin B12 deficiency. It can result from nitrous oxide (N2O) abuse and cause neuropsychiatric symptoms. However, ther...

    Authors: Jie Cao, Lusen Ran, Chenchen Liu and Zhijun Li
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:471
  11. Chronic inflammatory diseases are linked to an increased risk of stroke events. The white blood cell (WBC) count is a common marker of the inflammatory response. However, it is unclear whether the WBC count, i...

    Authors: Zhi-bing Hu, Ze-xiong Lu, Feng Zhu, Cao-qiang Jiang, Wei-sen Zhang, Jin Pan, Ya-li Jin, Lin Xu, G. Neil Thomas, Karkeung Cheng and Taihing Lam
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:470
  12. Rett syndrome (RTT) is characterized by a normal perinatal period with a normal head size at birth followed by normal development for the first 6 months of life followed by gradual deceleration of head growth,...

    Authors: Jhanvi Shah, Harsh Patel, Deepika Jain, Frenny Sheth and Harsh Sheth
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:469
  13. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that results in progressive and irreversible disability. Fatigue is one of the most common MS-related symptoms and is c...

    Authors: Abril Oliva Ramirez, Alexander Keenan, Olivia Kalau, Evelyn Worthington, Lucas Cohen and Sumeet Singh
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:468
  14. Non-dystrophic myotonias (NDMs) comprise muscle chloride and sodium channelopathies due to genetic defects of the CLCN1- and SCN4A-channels. No licensed antimyotonic treatment has been available until approval...

    Authors: Ann-Marie Chapman, Marieke Schurer, Laure Weijers, Amer Omar, Hiba Lee, Alla Zozulya Weidenfeller, Crispin Ellis, Shaneil Sonecha and Christiane Schneider-Gold
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:467
  15. Malnutrition as a result of insufficient intake or uptake of nutrition leads to increasing rate of chronic diseases such as stroke. Stroke is one of the most common causes of death in western countries and its...

    Authors: Mahsa Mahmoudinezhad, Mohammad Khalili, Nasim Rezaeemanesh, Mehdi Farhoudi and Sharareh Eskandarieh
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:466
  16. Arterial Tortuosity Syndrome (ATS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by elongated and tortuous arteries. Although ATS showed a significant clinical and pathophysiological overlap with other ...

    Authors: Stefano Cotti Piccinelli, Enrico Premi, Sonia Bonacina, Nicola Gilberti, Veronica Vergani, Massimo Gamba, Raffaella Spezi, Ilenia Delrio, Michaël Bernier, Angelo Costa, Marco Ravanelli, Marina Colombi, Roberto Gasparotti, Alessandro Padovani and Mauro Magoni
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:464
  17. The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the new Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a pandemic, affecting the therapeutic management for Multiple Sclerosis (MS). A...

    Authors: Clara G. Chisari, Simona Toscano, Sebastiano Arena, Chiara Finocchiaro, Arturo Montineri and Francesco Patti
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:462
  18. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between tumor biology and values of cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF), mean transit time (MTT), time to peak (TTP), permeability s...

    Authors: Ke Wang, Yeming Li, Haiyang Cheng, Shenjie Li, Wei Xiang, Yang Ming, Ligang Chen and Jie Zhou
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:460
  19. Dopamine transporter single-photon emission computed tomography (DaT-SPECT) can quantify the functional integrity of the dopaminergic nerve terminals and has been suggested as an imaging modality to verify the...

    Authors: R. Matthew Hutchison, Karleyton C. Evans, Tara Fox, Minhua Yang, Jerome Barakos, Barry J. Bedell, Jesse M. Cedarbaum, Miroslaw Brys, Andrew Siderowf and Anthony E. Lang
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:459
  20. Interleukin-6-receptor inhibitors like Tocilizumab and Satralizumab are showing promising results in the treatment of Neuromyelitis Optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). We aimed to investigate the efficacy and sa...

    Authors: Sanjeev Kharel, Suraj Shrestha, Rajeev Ojha, Neha Guragain and Rakesh Ghimire
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:458
  21. Primary orthostatic tremor (OT) is a rare movement disorder characterized by a 13–18 Hz leg tremor, which arises when standing and is relieved by walking/sitting. Those affected generally do not fall, but expe...

    Authors: Nicholas E. Calvo and Joseph M. Ferrara
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:457
  22. This study aimed to assess the prognostic value regarding neurologic outcome of CT neuroimaging based Gray-White-Matter-Ratio measurement in patients after resuscitation from cardiac arrest.

    Authors: Konrad Kirsch, Stefan Heymel, Albrecht Günther, Kathleen Vahl, Thorsten Schmidt, Dominik Michalski, Michael Fritzenwanger, Paul Christian Schulze and Rüdiger Pfeifer
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:456
  23. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Man Chen, Jinghuan Fang, Xintong Wu, Qin Liu, Ling Feng and Li He
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:455

    The original article was published in BMC Neurology 2021 21:365

  24. Anaemia has been reported to be associated with cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but the associations between anaemia and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AD biomarkers are still unknown. This study ai...

    Authors: Xin-Yu Yang, Xiao-He Hou, Yan-Lin Bi, Hao Hu, Xi-Peng Cao, Lan Tan, Jiu-Long Yang and Jin-Tai Yu
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:454
  25. It remains a matter of debate whether traditional concepts regarding the nature of food affect the development and progression of multiple sclerosis (MS).To date, there are limited studies that have investigat...

    Authors: Mohammad Hossein Sharifi, Parisa Keshani, Alireza Salehi, Amir Mohammad Jaladat, Zahra Mirzaei and Alireza Nikseresht
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:453
  26. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), began in late 2019. One of the vaccines approved against COVID-19 is the BNT162b2 mRNA ...

    Authors: Yamato Nishiguchi, Hirofumi Matsuyama, Kuniko Maeda, Akihiro Shindo and Hidekazu Tomimoto
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:452
  27. The diagnosis of neurosyphilis is challenging due to the requirement of a lumbar puncture and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) laboratory tests. Therefore, a convenient diagnostic nomogram for neurosyphilis is warran...

    Authors: Wenjing Ge, Yang Zhang, Chao Peng, Dongdong Li, Lijie Gao, Jiajia Bao, Changling Li, Ning Chen, Dong Zhou and Li He
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:451
  28. Non-progressive dysarthria is an acquired motor speech disorder resulting from neurological diseases such as stroke and traumatic brain injury. The evidence base for the assessment of non-progressive dysarthri...

    Authors: Marwa Summaka, Hayat Harati, Salem Hannoun, Hiba Zein, Nour Koubaisy, Youssef Fares and Zeina Nasser
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:450
  29. Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is an important disease leading to morbidity, disability and mortality that primarily affects children and immune-depressed patients. Specific neuromarkers predicting outcomes, sev...

    Authors: Giacomo Stroffolini, Giulia Guastamacchia, Sabrina Audagnotto, Cristiana Atzori, Mattia Trunfio, Marco Nigra, Alessandro Di Stefano, Giovanni Di Perri and Andrea Calcagno
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:449
  30. Tacrolimus is a macrolide immunosuppressant widely used to prevent rejection after solid organ transplantation. In general, adverse events of tacrolimus occur more often as the concentration of tacrolimus in t...

    Authors: Bora Jin, Ga Yeon Kim and Sang-Myung Cheon
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:448
  31. Median overall survival (OS) after diagnosis of glioblastoma (GBM) remains 15 months amongst patients receiving aggressive surgical resection, chemotherapy and irradiation. Treatment of patients with a poor pr...

    Authors: Melanie Barz, Julia Gerhardt, Stefanie Bette, A. Kaywan Aftahy, Thomas Huber, Stephanie E. Combs, Yu-Mi Ryang, Benedikt Wiestler, Marco Skardelly, Irina Gepfner-Tuma, Felix Behling, Friederike Schmidt-Graf, Bernhard Meyer and Jens Gempt
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:446
  32. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) represents a transient change in mental status with associated vasogenic edema of cortical and subcortical brain structures. It is often attributed to multif...

    Authors: Nicholas Dietz, Zarmina Mufti, Muhammed Yousaf, Randal Brown, Christopher Counts, Martin F. Bjurström, Brian J. Williams and David Robertson
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:445
  33. The prevalence of migraine headaches varied from 2.4 to 48.5% worldwide among university students. As per the knowledge of the investigators, the study of migraine headaches is not done in this study area. Hen...

    Authors: Mengesha Birkie, Mohammed Endris and Sintayehu Asnakew
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:443
  34. Surgery may render temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients seizure-free. However, TLE is a heterogenous entity and surgical prognosis varies between patients. Network-based biomarkers have been shown to be alter...

    Authors: Jacint Sala-Padro, Júlia Miró, Antoni Rodriguez-Fornells, Xavier Rifa-Ros, Gerard Plans, Mila Santurino, Mercè Falip and Estela Càmara
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:442
  35. Fasciculation is an important sign for the diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Our study aimed to analyze the difference in fasciculation detected with muscle ultrasonography (MUS) between ALS pa...

    Authors: Jingwen Liu, Yi Li, Jingwen Niu, Lei Zhang, Jing Fan, Yuzhou Guan, Liying Cui and Mingsheng Liu
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:441
  36. Patients with acute non-lacunar single subcortical infarct (SSI) associated with mild intracranial atherosclerosis (ICAS) have a relatively high incidence of early neurological deterioration (END), resulting i...

    Authors: Peng-Fei Wang, Zhuo-Ran Sun, Jin-Chao Yu, Na Geng, Ling-Yun Liu, Li-Na Zhu, Jing Li, Hai-Cheng Yuan, Guo-chen Zhao and Zhen-Guang Li
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:440
  37. Spastic paraplegia type 4 (SPG4) is caused by mutations in the SPAST gene, is the most common form of autosomal-dominant pure hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSP), and is rarely associated with a complicated form...

    Authors: Haitian Nan, Hiroshi Shiraku, Tomoko Mizuno and Yoshihisa Takiyama
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:439
  38. Glioma is the most common primary intracranial tumor. Owing to the poor prognosis associated with high-grade gliomas, there is an urgent need to identify biomarkers related to prognosis and treatment sensitivi...

    Authors: Kaijia Zhou, Tao Jiang, Yanwei Liu, Zheng Zhao, Lijie Huang and Guanzhang Li
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:438
  39. Early identification of massive middle cerebral artery infarction (MCAI) at risk for malignant MCAI (m-MCAI) may be useful in selecting patients for aggressive therapies. The aim of this study was to determine...

    Authors: Xingyang Yi, Qiang Zhou, Ting Qing, Bing Ming, Jing Lin, Jie Li and Jie Lin
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:437
  40. Cerebral small vascular disease (CSVD) is one of the leading causes of death in the aged population and is closely related to abnormalities in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Our study aims to cla...

    Authors: Xiaorong Yu, Yanhua Yu, Cunsheng Wei, Lin Wang, Junying Jiang, Rui Zhang, Qi Dai, Yue Kang and Xuemei Chen
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:436
  41. There is rare reports about opinions and clinical practice of functional movement disorders (FMD) in China. The present survey aimed to investigate the views of FMD in Chinese clinicians.

    Authors: Xin-Yi Xie, Guo-zhen Lin, Qiang Huang, Chun-Bo Li, Mark Hallett, Valerie Voon, Ru-jing Ren, Sheng-di Chen and Gang Wang
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:435
  42. Stroke related deaths are relatively higher in low- and middle-income countries where only a fraction of eligible patients undergo thrombolysis. There is also limited evidence on post-thrombolysis outcomes of ...

    Authors: H. M. M. T. B. Herath, Chaturaka Rodrigo, A. M. B. D. Alahakoon, Sathyajith Buddhika Ambawatte, Sunethra Senanayake, Bimsara Senanayake and Arjuna Fernando
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:434
  43. The evolution of cognitive impairment of vascular origin is increasingly becoming a prominent health threat particularly in this era where hypertension is the leading contributor of global disease burden and o...

    Authors: Pedro Pallangyo, Zabella S. Mkojera, Makrina Komba, Lucy R. Mgopa, Smita Bhalia, Henry Mayala, Salma Wibonela, Nsajigwa Misidai, Happiness J. Swai, Jalack Millinga, Ester Chavala, Peter R. Kisenge and Mohamed Janabi
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:433
  44. Contrast-induced encephalopathy (CIE) is a rare complication of the angiography process. CIE may mimic stroke symptoms clinically and subarachnoid hemorrhage radiologically. Previous CIE cases occurred after t...

    Authors: Jiaying Li, Guanshu Qi, Huani Zhang, Gang Chen, Shuting Wang, Minli Yan and Zhichao Sun
    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:430

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