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  1. This study examined how intracranial large artery stenosis (ILAS), symptomatic and asymptomatic ILAS, and risk factors affect unfavorable outcome events after medical treatment in routine clinical practice.

    Authors: K. C. Chang, I. C. Chuang, Y. C. Huang, C. Y. Wu, W. C. Lin, Y. L. Kuo, T. H. Lee and S. J. Ryu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:180

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Cognitive dysfunction is highly prevalent in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and a large proportion of patients eventually develops PD-related dementia. Currently, no effective treatment is available. Cognitive train...

    Authors: Tim D. van Balkom, Henk W. Berendse, Ysbrand D. van der Werf, Jos W. R. Twisk, Iris Zijlstra, Rob H. Hagen, Tanja Berk, Chris Vriend and Odile A. van den Heuvel

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:179

    Content type: Study protocol

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  3. B-mode and Color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) are the methods of choice for screening and determining the degree of Carotid artery stenosis. The evaluation of stenosis with calcification may be hampered by a...

    Authors: Estelle E. Seyman, Natan Bornstein, Eitan Auriel, Oren Cohen, Tania Nissel and Hen Hallevi

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:178

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Insulin resistance (IR) in relation to diabetes is a risk factor for ischemic stroke (IS), whereas less is known about non-diabetic IR and outcome after IS.

    Authors: Daniel Åberg, N. David Åberg, Katarina Jood, Lukas Holmegaard, Petra Redfors, Christian Blomstrand, Jörgen Isgaard, Christina Jern and Johan Svensson

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:177

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Elevated levels of plasma D-dimer increase the risk of ischemic stroke, stroke severity, and the progression of stroke status, but the association between plasma D-dimer level and functional outcome is unclear...

    Authors: Tao Yao, Bo-Lin Tian, Gang Li, Qin Cui, Cui-fang Wang, Qi Zhang, Bo Peng, Yan Gao, Yan-Qiang Zhan, Dan Hu, Lu Xu and Gao-Hua Wang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:175

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a serious, often irreversible movement disorder caused by prolonged exposure to antipsychotics; identifying patients at risk for TD is critical to preventing it. Predictive models fo...

    Authors: Oscar Patterson-Lomba, Rajeev Ayyagari and Benjamin Carroll

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:174

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients often struggle with treatment decisions, in part due to the increasing number of approved disease modifying therapies, each with different characteristics, and also since physi...

    Authors: Nick Bansback, Judy A. Chiu, Robert Carruthers, Rebecca Metcalfe, Emmanuelle Lapointe, Alice Schabas, Marilyn Lenzen, Larry D. Lynd and Anthony Traboulsee

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:173

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a life-changing experience for the individuals with SCI and their families. This study aimed to investigate physical strategies used for overcoming physical disability in individual...

    Authors: Alireza Nikbakht-Nasrabadi, Nooredin Mohammadi, Manijeh Yazdanshenas and Maryam Shabany

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:171

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Myasthenia gravis is the most common disease affecting the neuromuscular junction. The most common etiology among patients with juvenile myasthenia gravis is the production of antibodies against the acetylchol...

    Authors: Cheng-Che Chou, I-Chen Su, I-Jun Chou, Jainn-Jim Lin, Shih-Yun Lan, Yi-Shan Wang, Shu-Sing Kong, Yun-Ju Chen, Meng-Ying Hsieh, Po-Cheng Hung, Huei-Shyong Wang, Min-Liang Chou and Kuang-Lin Lin

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:170

    Content type: Research article

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  10. The coexistence of distinct neurodegenerative diseases in single cases has recently attracted greater attention. The phenotypic co-occurrence of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and amyotrophic lateral scl...

    Authors: Koji Fujita, Tomoyasu Matsubara, Ryosuke Miyamoto, Hiroyuki Sumikura, Toshiaki Takeuchi, Keiko Maruyama Saladini, Toshitaka Kawarai, Hiroyuki Nodera, Fukashi Udaka, Kodai Kume, Hiroyuki Morino, Hideshi Kawakami, Masato Hasegawa, Ryuji Kaji, Shigeo Murayama and Yuishin Izumi

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:168

    Content type: Case report

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  11. Higher circulating levels of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1 early after ischemic stroke have been associated with lower survival. The objectives of this study were to determine serum TI...

    Authors: Leonardo Lorente, María M. Martín, Luis Ramos, Mónica Argueso, Juan J. Cáceres, Jordi Solé-Violán, Alejandro Jiménez, Juan M. Borreguero-León, Agustín F. González-Rivero, Josune Orbe, José A. Rodríguez and José A. Páramo

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:167

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Acquired epileptiform opercular syndrome (AEOS) with electrical status epilepticus during sleep (ESES) may be recurrent and intractable. The real-time transcranial Doppler ultrasound–sleep-deprived video elect...

    Authors: Bing-Wei Peng, Hui-Ci Liang, Jia-Ling Li, Si-Yuan Yang, Wei Liang, Feng-Qiong Zhang and Wen-Xiong Chen

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:166

    Content type: Case report

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  13. Nowadays, few surgery analysis has been reported in cases of epilepsy after viral encephalitis(VE). Herein, this study was to evaluate the efficacy of surgery and capability of stereoelectroencephalography (SE...

    Authors: Yi-Ou Liu, Wen-Jing Zhou, Bo Hong, Tong Zhao and Yue-feng Wang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:165

    Content type: Research article

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  14. The exact relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D] levels and small vessel disease (SVD) are not clear in China. The aim of this study was to determine such the association between 25(OH) D and SVD ...

    Authors: Junzeng Si, Kuibao Li, Peiyan Shan and Junliang Yuan

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:164

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Patients with vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia usually have persistent hemodynamic abnormalities, and therefore, may bear an increased risk of stroke. This study aimed to identify risk factors for stroke recurre...

    Authors: Zhaoyao Chen, Shuai Zhang, Zhengze Dai, Xi Cheng, Minghua Wu, Qiliang Dai, Xinfeng Liu and Gelin Xu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:163

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Paroxysmal Sympathetic Hyperactivity (PSH) is a frequently observed condition among critically ill patients on intensive care units. According to different studies, PSH is associated with worse recovery and in...

    Authors: Alan Totikov, Melanie Boltzmann, Simone B. Schmidt and Jens D. Rollnik

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:162

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Epilepsy is a common neurological disease with substantial impact on the subject and their caretakers. This exploratory study identified barriers to care for persons living with epilepsy (PLWE) to develop a cu...

    Authors: Mark Kaddumukasa, Haddy Nalubwama, Martin N. Kaddumukasa, Samden Lhatoo, Nelson Sewankambo, Elly Katabira, Martha Sajatovic and Carol Blixen

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:161

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Our understanding of the etiology, pathophysiology, phenotypic diversity, and progression of Parkinson’s disease has stagnated. Consequently, patients do not receive the best care, leading to unnecessary disab...

    Authors: B. R. Bloem, W. J. Marks Jr., A. L. Silva de Lima, M. L. Kuijf, T. van Laar, B. P. F. Jacobs, M. M. Verbeek, R. C. Helmich, B. P. van de Warrenburg, L. J. W. Evers, J. intHout, T. van de Zande, T. M. Snyder, R. Kapur and M. J. Meinders

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:160

    Content type: Study protocol

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  19. Glatiramer acetate (GA) is one of the first therapies approved for multiple sclerosis (MS). We prospectively included and monitored drug-naïve and pre-treated MS patients who had been prescribed GA for 1 year,...

    Authors: Chiara Zecca, Giulio Disanto, Rosaria Sacco, Gianna C. Riccitelli and Claudio Gobbi

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:159

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Hereditary ataxia is a group of neurodegenerative diseases with progressive cerebellar ataxia of the gait and limbs as the main symptoms. The genetic patterns of the disease are diverse but it is mainly divide...

    Authors: Jiajun Chen, Yajuan Sun, Xiaoyang Liu and Jia Li

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:157

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Loss-of-function mutations in the CLCN2 gene were recently discovered to be a cause of a type of leukodystrophy named CLCN2-related leukoencephalopathy (CC2L), which is characterized by intramyelinic edema. Herei...

    Authors: Zhuoxin Guo, Tingting Lu, Lisheng Peng, Huanhuan Cheng, Fuhua Peng, Jin Li, Zhengqi Lu, Shaoqiong Chen and Wei Qiu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:156

    Content type: Case report

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  22. Intravenous thrombolysis has been recently introduced in Nepal for the management of acute ischemic stroke. Pre-hospital delay is one of the main reasons that hinder thrombolytic therapy. The objective of this...

    Authors: Gaurav Nepal, Jayant Kumar Yadav, Babin Basnet, Tirtha Man Shrestha, Ghanshyam Kharel and Rajeev Ojha

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:155

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Multiple Mitochondrial Dysfunctions Syndrome 4 (MMDS4) is manifested as a result of ISCA2 mutations. ISCA2 is a vital component of 4Fe-4S clusters assembly machine. Therefore, in MMDS4 patients, deficient mitocho...

    Authors: Milad Eidi and Masoud Garshasbi

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:153

    Content type: Case report

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  24. Simultaneous cerebral and myocardial infarction is called cardiocerebral infarction (CCI), and is rarely encountered. Because of the narrow time window and complex pathophysiology, CCI is challenging to immedi...

    Authors: Soichiro Abe, Kanta Tanaka, Hiroshi Yamagami, Kazutaka Sonoda, Hiroya Hayashi, Shuichi Yoneda, Kazunori Toyoda and Masatoshi Koga

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:152

    Content type: Case report

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  25. This study aimed to investigate the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and frontal lobe cognitive function in severe internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis patients with different types of collateral circulation.

    Authors: Wei Wei, Xingyang Yi, Jianghai Ruan, Xiaodong Duan, Hua Luo and Zhiyu Lv

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:151

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Mechanical thrombectomy has been proven as a standard care for moderate to severe ischemic stroke with anterior large vessel occlusion (LVO); however, whether it is equally effective in mild ischemic stroke (M...

    Authors: Xian-Jin Shang, Zhong-Hua Shi, Cai-Feng He, Shuai Zhang, Yong-Jie Bai, Yong-Tao Guo, Bo Sun, Shun Li, Huai-Ming Wang, Zhi-Ming Zhou, Wen-Jie Zi and Xin-Feng Liu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:150

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is the most common subtype among the autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias, a group of neurodegenerative disorders for which currently no disease-specific therapy is availa...

    Authors: Roderick P. P. W. M. Maas, Ivan Toni, Jonne Doorduin, Thomas Klockgether, Dennis J. L. G. Schutter and Bart P. C. van de Warrenburg

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:149

    Content type: Study protocol

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  28. Almost 40% of stroke patients have a poor outcome at 3 months after the index event. Predictors for stroke outcome in the early acute phase may help to tailor stroke treatment. Infection and inflammation are c...

    Authors: A. Mengel, L. Ulm, B. Hotter, H. Harms, S. K. Piper, U. Grittner, J. Montaner, C. Meisel, A. Meisel and S. Hoffmann

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:148

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Triglycerides (TG)/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio is a marker of small/dense low-density lipoprotein particles, which are closely associated with various metabolic and vascular diseases. Howe...

    Authors: Ki-Woong Nam, Hyung-Min Kwon, Han-Yeong Jeong, Jin-Ho Park, Hyuktae Kwon and Su-Min Jeong

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:147

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) or ATTRv (amyloid TTR variant) amyloidosis is a fatal hereditary disease characterized by the deposition of amyloid fibrils composed of transthyretin (TTR). The current di...

    Authors: Estefania P. Azevedo, Anderson B. Guimaraes-Costa, Christianne Bandeira-Melo, Leila Chimelli, Marcia Waddington-Cruz, Elvira M. Saraiva, Fernando L. Palhano and Debora Foguel

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:146

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Fulminant Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is characterized clinically by rapid progression of severe symptoms, such as the absence of brainstem reflexes, complete tetraplegia and respiratory arrest. The clinical...

    Authors: Yoshitsugu Nakamura, Mikiko Motoki, Takahiko Hirose, Takafumi Hosokawa, Shimon Ishida and Shigeki Arawaka

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:145

    Content type: Case report

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  32. Vestibular migraine (VM) has been recognized as a diagnostic entity over the past three decades. It affects up to 1% of the general population and 7% of patients seen in dizziness clinics. It is still underdia...

    Authors: Alice A. Takeuti, Mariana L. Fávero, Erica Helena Zaia and Fernando F. Ganança

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:144

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases. Patients suffer from a variety of motor and non-motor symptoms that severely affect their daily lives and quality of life. In many...

    Authors: Carolin Siegert, Björn Hauptmann, Nicole Jochems, Andreas Schrader and Ruth Deck

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:143

    Content type: Study protocol

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Neurology 2019 19:199

  34. Fatigue is one of the most common and debilitating symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS). The majority of approaches for managing MS fatigue typically require participation in a structured, time-limited program ...

    Authors: Marcia Finlayson, Nadine Akbar, Karen Turpin and Penny Smyth

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:142

    Content type: Study protocol

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  35. Visual disorders are common in Parkinson’s disease (PD) but their exact frequency and severity are unknown. Good visual functioning is crucial for patients with PD, because of their need to compensate for loss...

    Authors: Carlijn D. J. M. Borm, Mario Werkmann, Femke Visser, Marina Peball, Diana Putz, Klaus Seppi, Werner Poewe, Irene C. Notting, Annemarie Vlaar, Thomas Theelen, Carel Hoyng, Bastiaan R. Bloem and Nienke M. de Vries

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:141

    Content type: Study protocol

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  36. Body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) is a frequently used approach for restoring the ability to walk after spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the duration of BWSTT is usually limited by fatigue of ...

    Authors: Eddy Yu Yeung Cheung, Kevin Ka Ki Yu, Rachel Lai Chu Kwan, Carmen Ka Man Ng, Rosanna Mei Wa Chau and Gladys Lai Ying Cheing

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:140

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Multiple sclerosis (MS) and stroke are two common causes of death and disability worldwide. The relationship between these two diseases remains unclear. Effective early preventative measures and treatments are...

    Authors: Ye Hong, Huai Rong Tang, Mengmeng Ma, Ning Chen, Xin Xie and Li He

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:139

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Dystonia is a movement disorder substantially affecting the quality of life and the ability to work. A proportion of patients does not respond to first line pharmacotherapy. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is est...

    Authors: Rebekka M. Ortiz, Filip Scheperjans and Eero Pekkonen

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:137

    Content type: Research article

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  39. A short ketogenic diet (KD) treatment can prevent migraine attacks and correct excessive cortical response. Here, we aim to prove if the KD-related changes of cortical excitability are primarily due to cerebra...

    Authors: Cherubino Di Lorenzo, Gianluca Coppola, Martina Bracaglia, Davide Di Lenola, Giulio Sirianni, Paolo Rossi, Giorgio Di Lorenzo, Vincenzo Parisi, Mariano Serrao, Mackenzie C. Cervenka and Francesco Pierelli

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:136

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Myotonic Dystrophy 1 (DM1) causes progressive myopathy of extremity muscles. DM1 may also affect muscles of the trunk. The aim of this study was to investigate fat infiltration and muscle size in trunk muscles...

    Authors: Gro Solbakken, Bård Bjørnarå, Eva Kirkhus, Bac Nguyen, Gunnar Hansen, Jan C. Frich and Kristin Ørstavik

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:135

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Heat stroke (HS) is a critical illness that can cause multiple organ dysfunction, including damage to the central nervous system (CNS), which can be life-threatening in severe cases. Brain lesions in patients ...

    Authors: Lizhi Cao, Juan Wang, Yaxuan Gao, Yumei Liang, Jinhua Yan, Yunhai Zhang, Mingqin Zhu, Tianfei Luo and Jiafeng Chen

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:133

    Content type: Case report

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  42. Diabetic chorea appears during the course of poorly-controlled diabetes. While chorea associated with diabetes mellitus usually occurs during hyperglycemic episodes, hypoglycemia can also cause diabetic chorea...

    Authors: Eriko Matsushima, Hiroshi Shiota, Kentaro Watanabe, Yuichiro Otsuka, Midori Yamana, Suguru Yamaguchi, Fujiko Egashira, Satoshi Kamei and Hisamitsu Ishihara

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2019 19:131

    Content type: Case report

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