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  1. Pain is prevalent in myotonic dystrophy 1 (DM1). This study investigated whether CTG repeat size, disease duration, BMI and motor and psychological function were related to pain in adult patients with DM1, and...

    Authors: Gro Solbakken, Sissel Løseth, Anne Froholdt, Torunn D. Eikeland, Terje Nærland, Jan C. Frich, Espen Dietrichs and Kristin Ørstavik

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:101

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Anticoagulant assumption is a concern in neurosurgical patient that implies a delicate balance between the risk of thromboembolism versus the risk of peri- and postoperative hemorrhage.

    Authors: Alessandro Prior, Pietro Fiaschi, Corrado Iaccarino, Roberto Stefini, Denise Battaglini, Alberto Balestrino, Pasquale Anania, Enrico Prior and Gianluigi Zona

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:98

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Due to large genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity, the conventional workup for Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) diagnosis is often underpowered, leading to diagnostic delay or even lack of diagnosis. In the present s...

    Authors: Hui Jiang, Chunmiao Guo, Jie Xie, Jingxin Pan, Ying Huang, Miaoxin Li and Yibin Guo

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:96

    Content type: Case report

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  4. Screening for cognitive impairment (CI) is often hampered by lack of consensus as to which screening instrument to use. The aim is to assess the consistence and applicability of different CI screening tools.

    Authors: Lixia Lu, Lin Chen, Weiwen Wu, Yang Wang, Zhenbao Liu, Jun Xu, Qianhong Yang, Jun Zhao, Liangxian Liu and Hui Yu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:95

    Content type: Research article

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  5. To report our experience with a group of patients referred for refractory CIDP who fulfilled “definite” electrodiagnostic EFNS criteria for CIDP but were found to have an alternate diagnosis.

    Authors: Orly Moshe-Lilie, Erik Ensrud, Thomas Ragole, Chahin Nizar, Diana Dimitrova and Chafic Karam

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:94

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) is a treatable lipid metabolism disorder that presents as myopathy and episodic metabolic crisis. The metabolic crisis is typically associated with prolonged f...

    Authors: Po-Yu Lin, Wen-Chen Liang, Wei-An Liao and Yuan-Ting Sun

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:93

    Content type: Case report

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  7. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of endovascular treatment (EVT) in patients with anterior circulation emergent large vessel occlusion (ELVO) beyond 6 h from symptom onset in a real-world cohort of p...

    Authors: Qing Huang, Mengmeng Gu, Junshan Zhou, Teng Jiang, Hongchao Shi, Xiangliang Chen and Yingdong Zhang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:92

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Sex hormones may be associated with a higher incidence of ischemic stroke or stroke-related events. In observational studies, lower testosterone concentrations are associated with infirmity, vascular disease, ...

    Authors: Jung-Won Choi, In Woo Ryoo, Jun Yeong Hong, Kyung-Yul Lee, Hyo Suk Nam, Won Chan Kim, Seung-Hun Oh, Jaeku Kang, Hoi Young Lee, Sang-Jun Na, Ji Hoe Heo and Kee Ook Lee

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:91

    Content type: Research article

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  9. The primary symptoms of restless legs syndrome (RLS) are sleep onset insomnia and difficulty to maintain sleep. Previous studies have shown that regular physical activity can reduce the risk of developing RLS....

    Authors: A. K. Reimers, V. Heidenreich, H-J Bittermann, G. Knapp and C. D. Reimers

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:90

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Neurocognitive disorder (NCD) is common in stroke survivors. We aimed to identify clinically accessible imaging markers of stroke and chronic pathology that are associated with early post-stroke NCD.

    Authors: Till Schellhorn, Eva Birgitte Aamodt, Stian Lydersen, Stina Aam, Torgeir Bruun Wyller, Ingvild Saltvedt and Mona Kristiansen Beyer

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:89

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Anti-GABABR encephalitis is a rare type of autoimmune encephalitis, which often presents with memory impairments, behavioral changes and seizures. This case series describes the neuropsychological function recove...

    Authors: Caihong Ji, Dengchang Wu, Zhongqin Chen and Kang Wang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:87

    Content type: Case report

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  12. Facial (lip and jaw) tremor (FT) is associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD) but few studies have been conducted to explore its clinical profile. We performed this study to investigate the prevalence and clini...

    Authors: Ruwei Ou, Qianqian Wei, Yanbing Hou, Lingyu Zhang, Kuncheng Liu, Junyu Lin, Zheng Jiang, Bi Zhao, Bei Cao and Huifang Shang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:86

    Content type: Research article

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  13. The mu-opioid agonist methadone is administered orally and used in opioid detoxification and in the treatment of moderate-to-severe pain. Acute oral methadone–use and –abuse have been associated with inflammat...

    Authors: Jonathan Repple, Svea Haessner, Andreas Johnen, Nils C. Landmeyer, Andreas Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Marc Pawlitzki, Heinz Wiendl and Gerd Meyer zu Hörste

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:85

    Content type: Case report

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  14. Stroke in children easily causes long-term dysfunction. Whether the prognoses of motor and anxiety disorders are related to the affected stroke area has not been reported.

    Authors: Tianyi Li, Jiannan Ma, Siqi Hong, Yuanyuan Luo, Xiujuan Li, Tingsong Li and Li Jiang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:84

    Content type: Research article

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  15. The respiratory system involvement is the most common presentation of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, other organs including the central nervous system (CNS) could be affected by the virus. Strok...

    Authors: Michael T. Lawton, Ehsan Alimohammadi, Seyed Reza Bagheri, Arash Bostani, Siavash Vaziri, Ali Karbasforoushan, Kossar Mozaffari, Mehran Bahrami Bukani and Alireza Abdi

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:83

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is a change in physiology resulting from mechanical causes, trauma, or sepsis. Neurological manifestations of FES can vary from mild cognitive changes to coma and even cerebral oede...

    Authors: Wei Wang, Weibi Chen, Yan Zhang, Yingying Su and Yuping Wang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:82

    Content type: Case report

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Neurology 2021 21:192

  17. Erdheim–Chester disease (ECD) is a non-Langerhans histiocytosis that results in multi-organ disease involving the skin, bones, lungs and kidneys. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement occurs in about 50 % o...

    Authors: Pedro Gustavo Barros Rodrigues, Isabelle de Sousa Pereira, Valter Barbalho Lima Filho, Daniel Aguiar Dias, Paulo Ribeiro Nóbrega and Pedro Braga-Neto

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:81

    Content type: Case report

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  18. Chronic lymphocytic infiltration with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) is a neuro-inflammatory syndrome first described in 2010. It has a relationship with lymphoproliferative...

    Authors: Yew Li Dang, Hong Kuan Kok, Penelope A. McKelvie, Matthew Ligtermoet, Laura Maddy, David A. Burrows and Douglas E. Crompton

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:80

    Content type: Case report

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  19. Recent advances in therapeutic options may prevent deterioration related to Huntington’s disease (HD), even at the pre-symptomatic stage. Be that as it may, a well-characterized patient population is essential...

    Authors: Katalin Despotov, Dénes Zádori, Gábor Veres, Katalin Jakab, Gabriella Gárdián, Eszter Tóth, Tamás Zsigmond Kincses, László Vécsei, András Ajtay, Dániel Bereczki and Péter Klivényi

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:79

    Content type: Research article

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  20. CCDC88C is a ubiquitously expressed protein with multiple functions, including roles in cell polarity and the development of dendrites in the nervous system. Bi-allelic mutations in the CCDC88C gene cause autosom...

    Authors: Ashraf Yahia, Zhefan Stephen Chen, Ammar E. Ahmed, Sara Emad, Rawaa Adil, Rayan Abubaker, Shaimaa Omer M. A. Taha, Mustafa A. Salih, Liena Elsayed, Ho Yin Edwin Chan and Giovanni Stevanin

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:78

    Content type: Case report

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  21. Cerebral radiation injury, including subacute radiation reactions and later stage radiation necrosis, is a severe side effect of brain tumor radiotherapy. A protocol of four infusions of the monoclonal antibod...

    Authors: Martin Voss, Katharina J. Wenger, Emmanouil Fokas, Marie-Thérèse Forster, Joachim P. Steinbach and Michael W. Ronellenfitsch

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:77

    Content type: Research article

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  22. In contrast to the hospital setting, today little work has been directed to the definition, measurement, and improvement of the quality of out-patient medical and therapeutic care. We developed a set of indica...

    Authors: I. Padberg, S. Heel, P. Thiem, A. Diebel, E. Mordhorst, U. Strohmeyer and A. Meisel

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:76

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Carotid stenosis is a known risk factor for ischemic stroke, and carotid artery stenting is an effective preventive procedure. However, the stroke risk reduction for asymptomatic patients is small. Therefore, ...

    Authors: Seong Hwa Jang, Doo Hyuk Kwon, Moon-Ku Han, Hyungjong Park, Sung-Il Sohn, Huimahn Choi and Jeong-Ho Hong

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:75

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Despite its initial association with sensory neuropathies, anti-fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) antibodies have been since reported with a broad range of neuropathies and clinical features. The aim...

    Authors: Elanagan Nagarajan, Seung Ah Kang, Carmen Holmes and Raghav Govindarajan

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:74

    Content type: Research article

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  25. New Oral Anticoagulants (NOACs) such as Rivaroxaban are introduced as alternatives to conventional vitamin-K antagonists in the long-term treatment of thrombotic events due to their lower bleeding risk. There ...

    Authors: Sara Esmaeili, Meysam Abolmaali, Sobhan Aarabi, Mohammad Reza Motamed, Samira Chaibakhsh, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Mohammad Mojtahed and Zahra Mirzaasgari

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:73

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Identifying physical activity (PA) profiles of people with Parkinson’s Disease (PD) could provide clinically meaningful knowledge concerning how to tailor PA interventions. Our objectives were therefore to i) ...

    Authors: Philip von Rosen, Maria Hagströmer, Erika Franzén and Breiffni Leavy

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:71

    Content type: Research article

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  27. We aimed to compare neuropathic progression rate between hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis with polyneuropathy (ATTRv-PN) and other peripheral neuropathies, including diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) an...

    Authors: Xiaochen Lin, Aaron Yarlas, Montserrat Vera-Llonch, Nishtha Baranwal, Josh Biber, Duncan Brown, Braden Vogt and Chafic Karam

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:70

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Prolonged disorders of consciousness (PDOC) may occur after severe brain injury. Two diagnostic entities are distinguished within PDOC: unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS, previously known as vegetative st...

    Authors: Danielle M. F. Driessen, Cecile M. A. Utens, Gerard M. Ribbers, Willemijn S. van Erp and Majanka H. Heijenbrok-Kal

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:69

    Content type: Study protocol

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  29. Depression in essential tremor (ET) has been constantly studied and reported, while the associated brain activity changes remain unclear. Recently, regional homogeneity (ReHo), a voxel-wise local functional co...

    Authors: Xiyue Duan, Zhou Fang, Li Tao, Huiyue Chen, Xiaoyu Zhang, Yufen Li, Hansheng Wang, Aotian Li, Xueyan Zhang, Ya Pang, Min Gu, Jiahui Wu, Fajin Lv, Tianyou Luo, Oumei Cheng, Jin Luo…

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:68

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Systemic cardiac hypoperfusion is a well-acknowledged contributor to ischemic leukoencephalopathy. However, it has remained elusive how atherosclerosis-mediated cardiac remodelling modifies cerebral perfusion ...

    Authors: Xiaodong Chen, Danli Lu, Ning Guo, Zhuang Kang, Ke Zhang, Jihui Wang, Xuejiao Men, Zhengqi Lu and Wei Qiu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:67

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) often have reduced aerobic capacity and report fatigue as the most disabling symptom impacting their health-related quality of life (HRQoL). A multidisciplinary rehabilit...

    Authors: Nadine Patt, Jan Kool, Ruth Hersche, Max Oberste, David Walzik, Niklas Joisten, Daniel Caminada, Francesca Ferrara, Roman Gonzenbach, Claudio Renato Nigg, Christian Philipp Kamm, Philipp Zimmer and Jens Bansi

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:65

    Content type: Study protocol

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  32. ALDH18A1 mutations lead to delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate-synthetase (P5CS) deficiency, which is a urea cycle-related disorder including SPG9A, SPG9B, autosomal dominant cutis laxa-3 (ADCL3), and autosomal reces...

    Authors: Kishin Koh, Ryusuke Takaki, Hiroyuki Ishiura, Shoji Tsuji and Yoshihisa Takiyama

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:64

    Content type: Case report

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  33. Limited research exists to guide clinical decisions about trialling, selecting, implementing and evaluating eye-gaze control technology. This paper reports on the outcomes of a Delphi study that was conducted ...

    Authors: Petra Karlsson, Tom Griffiths, Michael T. Clarke, Elegast Monbaliu, Kate Himmelmann, Saranda Bekteshi, Abigail Allsop, René Pereksles, Claire Galea and Margaret Wallen

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:63

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Gait impairments are common in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Cholinesterase inhibitors are used to treat the symptoms of patients with Alzheimer’s disease, but they have not been shown to reduce the sever...

    Authors: Hideki Shimura, Aiba Saiko, Akito Hayashi, Nobutaka Hattori and Takao Urabe

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:61

    Content type: Research article

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  35. To assess the predictive value of common measures validated to predict falls in other geriatric populations in patients presenting with suspected Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH).

    Authors: Alexander Davis, Mark Luciano, Abhay Moghekar and Sevil Yasar

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:60

    Content type: Research article

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  36. During medical imaging, cystic radiation encephalopathy and brain metastasis are difficult to differentiate, and hence they are easily misdiagnosed. To our knowledge, a nasopharyngeal carcinoma recurrence afte...

    Authors: Xuhui Chen, Lijie Ren, Guozhen Qiu and Liming Cao

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:59

    Content type: Case report

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  37. Migraine Disability Assessment Scale (MIDAS) is a useful tool to measure headache-related disability. Modified MIDAS with 4-week recall period reduces recall bias and improves accuracy of the results. This stu...

    Authors: Pedro L. Ferreira, Isabel Luzeiro, Margarida Lopes, André Jorge, Bruno Silva and Lara Ferreira

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:58

    Content type: Research article

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  38. The effectiveness of mechanical thrombectomy (MT) in cancer-related stroke (CRS) is largely unknown. This study aims to investigate the clinical and radiological outcomes of MT in CRS patients. We also explore...

    Authors: Eung-Joon Lee, Jeonghoon Bae, Hae-Bong Jeong, Eun Ji Lee, Han-Yeong Jeong and Byung-Woo Yoon

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:57

    Content type: Research article

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  39. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has emerged as an inflammatory marker. However, the associations of NLR with intracranial artery stenosis (ICAS) and ischemic stroke remain unclear. This study aimed to...

    Authors: Liang-Yu Huang, Fu-Rong Sun, Jian-Jun Yin, Ya-Hui Ma, Hong-Qi Li, Xiao-Ling Zhong, Jin-Tai Yu, Jing-Hui Song and Lan Tan

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:56

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Although several brain networks play important roles in cervical dystonia (CD) patients, regional homogeneity (ReHo) changes in CD patients have not been clarified. We investigated to explore ReHo in CD patien...

    Authors: Shubao Wei, Chunhui Lu, Xiuqiong Chen, Lu Yang, Jing Wei, Wenyan Jiang, Yang Liu, Hui Hui Li, Yuhong Qin, Yiwu Lei, Chao Qin, Caiyou Hu and Shuguang Luo

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:55

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Efforts to identify potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of ischemic stroke (IS) are valuable. The H19 gene plays a functional role in increasing the prevalence of IS risk factors. We evaluated the correlati...

    Authors: Mohadese Rezaei, Mohammad Javad Mokhtari, Mahnaz Bayat, Anahid Safari, Mehdi Dianatpuor, Reza Tabrizi, Tahereh Asadabadi and Afshin Borhani-Haghighi

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:54

    Content type: Research article

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  42. In Egypt, the characterization of Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder (NMOSD) is lacking.

    Authors: Nirmeen A. Kishk, Walaa Abdelfattah, Nevin M. Shalaby, Hatem S. Shehata, Amr Hassan, Mohamed I. Hegazy, Noha T. Abokrysha, Doaa Abdellatif, Shereen M. Shawky, Sarah S. Abdo, Noha Taha, Amr M. Fouad, Alaa Elmazny and Amany H. Ragab

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:53

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Isolated spinal artery aneurysms are extremely rare, and their pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and treatment strategies are poorly established. We report only the second case of a patient with an isolated...

    Authors: Alexander Tenorio, Brandon B. Holmes, Adib A. Abla, Matthew Amans and Karl Meisel

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:52

    Content type: Case report

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  44. Although the pathology of sciatica has been studied extensively, the transcriptional changes in the peripheral blood caused by sciatica have not been characterized. This study aimed to characterize the periphe...

    Authors: Yi Wang, Guogang Dai, Ling Jiang, Shichuan Liao and Jiao Xia

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:50

    Content type: Research article

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