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  1. The aim of this work is to analyze the reports on cluster headache attacks collected online in the citizen science project CLUE with respect to the effectiveness of drugs taken during the attacks. The collecti...

    Authors: Johannes Drescher, Andreas Khouri, Tina Katharina Amann, Charly Gaul, Peter Kropp, Yannic Siebenhaar and Jörg Scheidt

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:174

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Isolated anterior cerebral artery territory (ACA) infarction is a rare phenomenon, and is known to have distinctive clinical features. Little is known regarding the clinical prognosis of isolated ACA territory...

    Authors: Hyungjong Park, Young Seok Jeong, Seo Hyeon Lee, Seong Hwa Jang, Doo Hyuk Kwon, Jeong-Ho Hong, Sung-Il Sohn and Joonsang Yoo

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:171

    Content type: Research article

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  3. The Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests (BRBN-T) is one of the most sensitive and used measures for detecting cognitive impairment in Multiple Sclerosis (MS).

    Authors: Claudia Sousa, Mariana Rigueiro-Neves, Ana Margarida Passos, Aristides Ferreira and Maria José Sá

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:170

    Content type: Research article

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  4. The physiological and pathological significance of the arachnoid membrane (AM) is still unknown. In this study, we investigated various characteristics of the AM, focusing on the influence of inflammation and ...

    Authors: Hime Suzuki, Takeshi Mikami, Naotoshi Iwahara, Yukinori Akiyama, Masahiko Wanibuchi, Katsuya Komatsu, Rintaro Yokoyama, Tsukasa Hirano, Ryusuke Hosoda, Yoshiyuki Horio, Atsushi Kuno and Nobuhiro Mikuni

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:169

    Content type: Research article

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  5. In this study, we aimed to determine the risk association between vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) polymorphism in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) in a MS biobank and the difference in VDBP serum levels ...

    Authors: Zhila Maghbooli, Abolfazl Omidifar, Tarlan Varzandi, Tayebeh Salehnezhad and Mohammad Ali Sahraian

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:168

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is associated with inflammatory mediators that may also trigger downstream signaling pathways leading to reduce insulin sensitivity.

    Authors: Zhila Maghbooli, Abdorreza Naser Moghadasi, Nasim Rezaeimanesh, Abolfazl Omidifar, Tarlan Varzandi and Mohammad Ali Sahraian

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:167

    Content type: Research article

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  7. We report on a patient with an intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), who showed delayed development of aphasia, which was demonstrated via follow up diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) to be related to neural degene...

    Authors: Min Jye Cho and Sung Ho Jang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:166

    Content type: Case report

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  8. The clinical characteristics of Parkinson’s disease (PD) differ between men and women, and late- and early-onset patients, including motor symptoms and some nonmotor symptoms, such as cognition, anxiety, and d...

    Authors: Ming Liu, Ya-Jun Luo, Han-Ying Gu, Yi-Ming Wang, Man-Hua Liu, Kai Li, Jiao Li, Sheng Zhuang, Yun Shen, Hong Jin, Jing Chen, Cheng-Jie Mao and Chun-Feng Liu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:165

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive motor neuron disease with great heterogeneity. Biological prognostic markers are needed for the patients to plan future supportive treatment, palliative tre...

    Authors: Anne-Lene Kjældgaard, Katrine Pilely, Karsten Skovgaard Olsen, Anders Hedegaard Jessen, Anne Øberg Lauritsen, Stephen Wørlich Pedersen, Kirsten Svenstrup, Merete Karlsborg, Helle Thagesen, Morten Blaabjerg, Ásta Theódórsdóttir, Elisabeth Gundtoft Elmo, Anette Torvin Møller, Lone Bonefeld, Mia Berg, Peter Garred…

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:164

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Self-efficacy concerns individuals’ beliefs in their capability to exercise control in specific situations and complete tasks successfully. In people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS), self-efficacy has been asso...

    Authors: Barbara Seebacher, Roger J. Mills, Markus Reindl, Laura Zamarian, Simone Kircher, Christian Brenneis, Rainer Ehling and Florian Deisenhammer

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:163

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Patients who have been successfully treated for an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) often retain multiple health complaints, including mood disorders, cognitive complaints, fatigue, and problems with ...

    Authors: Edith Nobels-Janssen, Inger L. Abma, Wim I. M. Verhagen, Ronald H. M. A. Bartels, Philip J. van der Wees and Jeroen D. Boogaarts

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:162

    Content type: Research article

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  12. The initial CT blend sign is an imaging marker that has been used to predict haematoma expansion and poor outcomes in patients with small-volume intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). However, the association of the...

    Authors: Xu Yang, Yan Zhu, Linshan Zhang, Likun Wang, Yuanhong Mao, Yinghui Li, Jinbiao Luo and Guofeng Wu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:160

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, as an early biomarker for vascular mild cognitive impairment (vMCI), has only been validated by a few studies. The aim of this study was to investigate whether compromised ...

    Authors: Man Li, Yue Li, Long Zuo, Wenli Hu and Tao Jiang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:159

    Content type: Research article

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  14. The cortical microvascular cerebral blood flow response (CBF) to different changes in head-of-bed (HOB) position has been shown to be altered in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) by diffuse correlation spectroscopy ...

    Authors: Clara Gregori-Pla, Rickson C. Mesquita, Christopher G. Favilla, David R. Busch, Igor Blanco, Peyman Zirak, Lisa Kobayashi Frisk, Stella Avtzi, Federica Maruccia, Giacomo Giacalone, Gianluca Cotta, Pol Camps-Renom, Michael T. Mullen, Joan Martí-Fàbregas, Luís Prats-Sánchez, Alejandro Martínez-Domeño…

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:154

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a rare neuroinflammatory disorder of the central nervous system that typically involves the optic nerve, the spinal cord and other specific brain regions. In r...

    Authors: Jung Lung Hsu, Ming-Feng Liao, Kuo-Hsuan Chang, Mei-Yun Cheng and Long-Sun Ro

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:153

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Stroke incidence is reportedly increasing in younger populations, although the reasons for this are not clear. We explored possible reasons by quantifying trends in neurologically focused emergency department ...

    Authors: Abhinav J. Appukutty, Lesli E. Skolarus, Mellanie V. Springer, William J. Meurer and James F. Burke

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:152

    Content type: Research article

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  17. A central goal of rehabilitation in patients with paralysis syndromes after stroke or spinal cord injury (SCI) is to restore independent mobility as a pedestrian or wheelchair user. However, after acute rehabi...

    Authors: Andreas Hug, Tamara Spingler, Cornelia Hensel, Stefan Fichtner, Tiziana Daniel, Laura Heutehaus, Michel Wensing, Rüdiger Rupp and Norbert Weidner

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:149

    Content type: Study protocol

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  18. Until recently, it is generally considered safe to perform magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with an intrathecal drug administration system (ITDAS) device. In this study, we presented a case of morp...

    Authors: Seoyeon Kim and Min Kyoung Kang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:147

    Content type: Case report

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  19. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) can rarely occur in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients undergoing dimethyl fumarate (DMF) treatment. Our case stresses the limits of current diagnostic and strati...

    Authors: Elena Augusta Vola, Maria Petracca, Sirio Cocozza, Marcello De Angelis, Antonio Carotenuto, Giuseppe Pontillo, Vincenzo Brescia Morra, Enrico Tedeschi and Roberta Lanzillo

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:146

    Content type: Case report

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  20. Socioeconomic factors may be involved in risk of multiple sclerosis (MS), either indirectly or as confounding factors. In this study two comprehensive indicators reflecting socioeconomic differences, including...

    Authors: Vahid Kazemi Moghaddam, Aisha S. Dickerson, Edris Bazrafshan, Seyedeh Nahid Seyedhasani, Fereshteh Najafi, Mostafa Hadei, Jalil Momeni, Ghasem Moradi and Mohammad Sarmadi

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:145

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Lewy body dementia (LBD), consisting of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD), is the second most common type of neurodegenerative dementia in older people. The current study a...

    Authors: Jinghuan Gan, Shuai Liu, Xiaodan Wang, Zhihong Shi, Lu Shen, Xudong Li, Qihao Guo, Junliang Yuan, Nan Zhang, Yong You, Yang Lv, Dongming Zheng and Yong Ji

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:144

    Content type: Research article

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  22. The 32-item Motor Function Measure (MFM32) is a clinician-reported outcome measure used to assess the functional abilities of individuals with neuromuscular diseases, including those with spinal muscular atrop...

    Authors: Tina Duong, Jessica Braid, Hannah Staunton, Aurelie Barriere, Fani Petridis, Johannes Reithinger, Rosangel Cruz, Jill Jarecki, Mencia De Lemus, Nicole Gusset, Ria Broekgaarden, Sharan Randhawa, Jessica Flynn, Rob Arbuckle, Sonia Reif, Lida Yang…

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:143

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Neurology 2021 21:354

  23. Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID) is a neurodegenerative disease, the clinical manifestations of which are complex and easily misdiagnosed. NIID clinical characteristics are varied, affecting the ...

    Authors: Ying Huang, Ge Jin, Qun-ling Zhan, Yun Tian and Lu Shen

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:142

    Content type: Case report

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  24. Central Sensitization (CS) involves dysfunction in neurophysiological mechanisms that increase neuronal responses to both noxious and non-noxious stimuli in the central nervous system. The Central Sensitizatio...

    Authors: Jani Mikkonen, Hannu Luomajoki, Olavi Airaksinen, Randy Neblett, Tuomas Selander and Ville Leinonen

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:141

    Content type: Research article

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  25. The onset time of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) may be closely related to the working style and living habits of people, which are determined by different income sources in China. Therefore, the purpose of ou...

    Authors: Yan-Yue Wang, Ning Yan, En-Yuan Wang and Yun-Tao Pu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:140

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) is occasionally seen in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Two main options are currently available for treating SEGA: surgical resection or pharmacotherapy using mamm...

    Authors: Kyoichi Tomoto, Ayataka Fujimoto, Chikanori Inenaga, Tohru Okanishi, Shin Imai, Masaaki Ogai, Akiko Fukunaga, Hidenori Nakamura, Keishiro Sato, Akira Obana, Takayuki Masui, Yoshifumi Arai and Hideo Enoki

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:139

    Content type: Research article

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  27. The spectrum of neurological involvement in COVID-19 is not thoroughly understood. To the best of our knowledge, no systematic review with meta-analysis and a sub-group comparison between severe and non-severe...

    Authors: Ahmed Yassin, Mohammed Nawaiseh, Ala Shaban, Khalid Alsherbini, Khalid El-Salem, Ola Soudah and Mohammad Abu-Rub

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:138

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Pneumonia is related to poor prognosis in acute ischemic stroke (AIS), and its risk might be higher in atrial fibrillation (AF) related AIS with elevated plasma D-dimer. The aim of our study was to investigate...

    Authors: Xu Yang, Taoli Lu, Zhanli Qu, Yi Zhang, Pingping Liu and Ying Ma

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:137

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Though adherence to disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) among persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) varies and is often below 80%, only few prospective studies on adherence examined predictors beyond demograph...

    Authors: Efrat Neter, Lea Glass-Marmor, Anat Wolkowitz, Idit Lavi and Ariel Miller

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:136

    Content type: Research article

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  30. During the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, different neurological manifestations have been observed. However, only a few cases of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and COVID-19 have been reported. Th...

    Authors: Nuvia Mackenzie, Eva Lopez-Coronel, Alberto Dau, Dieb Maloof, Salvador Mattar, Jesus Tapia Garcia, Briyis Fontecha, Cristina M. Lanata and Hernan Felipe Guillen-Burgos

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:135

    Content type: Case report

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  31. Extreme delta brush (EDB) is considered a potential marker for anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis. The brain regions involved in EDB are unclear.

    Authors: Ailiang Miao, Yongwei Shi, Jing Xiang, Xiaoshan Wang, Jianqing Ge, Qiqi Chen, Yuanwen Yu, Chuanyong Yu and Di Wu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:134

    Content type: Case report

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  32. Prolonged disorders of consciousness (PDOC) are amongst the severest sequelae of acquired brain injury. Evidence regarding epidemiology and rehabilitation outcomes is scarce. These knowledge gaps and psycholog...

    Authors: Manju Sharma-Virk, Willemijn S. van Erp, Jan C. M. Lavrijsen and Raymond T. C. M. Koopmans

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:133

    Content type: Study protocol

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  33. Stroke is a leading cause of disability worldwide and the cardiovascular fitness levels of stroke survivors are diminished to an extent that impairs functioning and activities of daily living performance. Whil...

    Authors: Hanna Reynolds, Sarah Steinfort, Jane Tillyard, Sarah Ellis, Alan Hayes, Erik D. Hanson, Tissa Wijeratne and Elizabeth H. Skinner

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:132

    Content type: Research article

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  34. The computed tomography angiography (CTA) spot sign is a validated predictor of hematoma expansion and 30-day mortality in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, whether the spot sign predicts worse function...

    Authors: Wen-Che Tseng, Yu-Fen Wang, Tyng-Guey Wang and Ming-Yen Hsiao

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:131

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Bickerstaff’s brainstem encephalitis (BBE) and Fisher syndrome (FS) are immune-mediated diseases associated with anti-ganglioside antibodies, specifically the anti-GQ1b IgG antibody. These two diseases potenti...

    Authors: Hirokazu Natsui, Makoto Takahashi, Kentaro Nanatsue, Sakiko Itaya, Keisuke Abe, Akira Inaba and Satoshi Orimo

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:130

    Content type: Case report

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  36. Although increasing evidence showed the correlations between white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) and cognitive impairment, the relationship between them is still modest. Many researchers began to focus on the...

    Authors: Zhi-gang Min, Hai-rong Shan, Long Xu, Dai-hai Yuan, Xue-xia Sheng, Wen-chao Xie, Ming Zhang, Chen Niu, Tahir Mehmood Shakir and Zhi-hong Cao

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:128

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Eptinezumab, an anti-calcitonin gene-related peptide monoclonal antibody recently approved in the United States for preventive treatment of migraine in adults, was found to be well tolerated in double-blind, p...

    Authors: David Kudrow, Roger K. Cady, Brent Allan, Susan M. Pederson, Joe Hirman, Lahar R. Mehta and Barbara A. Schaeffler

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:126

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Lower urinary tract symptoms are one of the most common groups of non-movement symptoms in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Storage symptoms are well-acknowledged, but neurogenic voiding dysfunction cau...

    Authors: Tianying Xing, Jinghong Ma and Tongwen Ou

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:125

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Chronic kidney disease has been identified as a risk factor affecting stroke prognosis. High-grade carotid artery stenosis (CAS) is associated with distal hemodynamic compromise. The association between the es...

    Authors: Chung-Hao Chao, Chia-Lun Wu and Wen-Yi Huang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:124

    Content type: Research article

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