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  1. The cortical microvascular cerebral blood flow response (CBF) to different changes in head-of-bed (HOB) position has been shown to be altered in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) by diffuse correlation spectroscopy ...

    Authors: Clara Gregori-Pla, Rickson C. Mesquita, Christopher G. Favilla, David R. Busch, Igor Blanco, Peyman Zirak, Lisa Kobayashi Frisk, Stella Avtzi, Federica Maruccia, Giacomo Giacalone, Gianluca Cotta, Pol Camps-Renom, Michael T. Mullen, Joan Martí-Fàbregas, Luís Prats-Sánchez, Alejandro Martínez-Domeño…

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:154

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a rare neuroinflammatory disorder of the central nervous system that typically involves the optic nerve, the spinal cord and other specific brain regions. In r...

    Authors: Jung Lung Hsu, Ming-Feng Liao, Kuo-Hsuan Chang, Mei-Yun Cheng and Long-Sun Ro

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:153

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Stroke incidence is reportedly increasing in younger populations, although the reasons for this are not clear. We explored possible reasons by quantifying trends in neurologically focused emergency department ...

    Authors: Abhinav J. Appukutty, Lesli E. Skolarus, Mellanie V. Springer, William J. Meurer and James F. Burke

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:152

    Content type: Research article

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  4. A central goal of rehabilitation in patients with paralysis syndromes after stroke or spinal cord injury (SCI) is to restore independent mobility as a pedestrian or wheelchair user. However, after acute rehabi...

    Authors: Andreas Hug, Tamara Spingler, Cornelia Hensel, Stefan Fichtner, Tiziana Daniel, Laura Heutehaus, Michel Wensing, Rüdiger Rupp and Norbert Weidner

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:149

    Content type: Study protocol

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  5. Until recently, it is generally considered safe to perform magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with an intrathecal drug administration system (ITDAS) device. In this study, we presented a case of morp...

    Authors: Seoyeon Kim and Min Kyoung Kang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:147

    Content type: Case report

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  6. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) can rarely occur in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients undergoing dimethyl fumarate (DMF) treatment. Our case stresses the limits of current diagnostic and strati...

    Authors: Elena Augusta Vola, Maria Petracca, Sirio Cocozza, Marcello De Angelis, Antonio Carotenuto, Giuseppe Pontillo, Vincenzo Brescia Morra, Enrico Tedeschi and Roberta Lanzillo

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:146

    Content type: Case report

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  7. Socioeconomic factors may be involved in risk of multiple sclerosis (MS), either indirectly or as confounding factors. In this study two comprehensive indicators reflecting socioeconomic differences, including...

    Authors: Vahid Kazemi Moghaddam, Aisha S. Dickerson, Edris Bazrafshan, Seyedeh Nahid Seyedhasani, Fereshteh Najafi, Mostafa Hadei, Jalil Momeni, Ghasem Moradi and Mohammad Sarmadi

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:145

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Lewy body dementia (LBD), consisting of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD), is the second most common type of neurodegenerative dementia in older people. The current study a...

    Authors: Jinghuan Gan, Shuai Liu, Xiaodan Wang, Zhihong Shi, Lu Shen, Xudong Li, Qihao Guo, Junliang Yuan, Nan Zhang, Yong You, Yang Lv, Dongming Zheng and Yong Ji

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:144

    Content type: Research article

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  9. The 32-item Motor Function Measure (MFM32) is a clinician-reported outcome measure used to assess the functional abilities of individuals with neuromuscular diseases, including those with spinal muscular atrop...

    Authors: Tina Duong, Jessica Braid, Hannah Staunton, Aurelie Barriere, Fani Petridis, Johannes Reithinger, Rosangel Cruz, Jill Jarecki, Mencia De Lemus, Nicole Gusset, Ria Broekgaarden, Sharan Randhawa, Jessica Flynn, Rob Arbuckle, Sonia Reif, Lida Yang…

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:143

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Neurology 2021 21:354

  10. Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID) is a neurodegenerative disease, the clinical manifestations of which are complex and easily misdiagnosed. NIID clinical characteristics are varied, affecting the ...

    Authors: Ying Huang, Ge Jin, Qun-ling Zhan, Yun Tian and Lu Shen

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:142

    Content type: Case report

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  11. Central Sensitization (CS) involves dysfunction in neurophysiological mechanisms that increase neuronal responses to both noxious and non-noxious stimuli in the central nervous system. The Central Sensitizatio...

    Authors: Jani Mikkonen, Hannu Luomajoki, Olavi Airaksinen, Randy Neblett, Tuomas Selander and Ville Leinonen

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:141

    Content type: Research article

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  12. The onset time of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) may be closely related to the working style and living habits of people, which are determined by different income sources in China. Therefore, the purpose of ou...

    Authors: Yan-Yue Wang, Ning Yan, En-Yuan Wang and Yun-Tao Pu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:140

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) is occasionally seen in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Two main options are currently available for treating SEGA: surgical resection or pharmacotherapy using mamm...

    Authors: Kyoichi Tomoto, Ayataka Fujimoto, Chikanori Inenaga, Tohru Okanishi, Shin Imai, Masaaki Ogai, Akiko Fukunaga, Hidenori Nakamura, Keishiro Sato, Akira Obana, Takayuki Masui, Yoshifumi Arai and Hideo Enoki

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:139

    Content type: Research article

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  14. The spectrum of neurological involvement in COVID-19 is not thoroughly understood. To the best of our knowledge, no systematic review with meta-analysis and a sub-group comparison between severe and non-severe...

    Authors: Ahmed Yassin, Mohammed Nawaiseh, Ala Shaban, Khalid Alsherbini, Khalid El-Salem, Ola Soudah and Mohammad Abu-Rub

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:138

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Pneumonia is related to poor prognosis in acute ischemic stroke (AIS), and its risk might be higher in atrial fibrillation (AF) related AIS with elevated plasma D-dimer. The aim of our study was to investigate...

    Authors: Xu Yang, Taoli Lu, Zhanli Qu, Yi Zhang, Pingping Liu and Ying Ma

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:137

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Though adherence to disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) among persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) varies and is often below 80%, only few prospective studies on adherence examined predictors beyond demograph...

    Authors: Efrat Neter, Lea Glass-Marmor, Anat Wolkowitz, Idit Lavi and Ariel Miller

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:136

    Content type: Research article

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  17. During the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, different neurological manifestations have been observed. However, only a few cases of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and COVID-19 have been reported. Th...

    Authors: Nuvia Mackenzie, Eva Lopez-Coronel, Alberto Dau, Dieb Maloof, Salvador Mattar, Jesus Tapia Garcia, Briyis Fontecha, Cristina M. Lanata and Hernan Felipe Guillen-Burgos

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:135

    Content type: Case report

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  18. Extreme delta brush (EDB) is considered a potential marker for anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis. The brain regions involved in EDB are unclear.

    Authors: Ailiang Miao, Yongwei Shi, Jing Xiang, Xiaoshan Wang, Jianqing Ge, Qiqi Chen, Yuanwen Yu, Chuanyong Yu and Di Wu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:134

    Content type: Case report

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  19. Prolonged disorders of consciousness (PDOC) are amongst the severest sequelae of acquired brain injury. Evidence regarding epidemiology and rehabilitation outcomes is scarce. These knowledge gaps and psycholog...

    Authors: Manju Sharma-Virk, Willemijn S. van Erp, Jan C. M. Lavrijsen and Raymond T. C. M. Koopmans

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:133

    Content type: Study protocol

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  20. Stroke is a leading cause of disability worldwide and the cardiovascular fitness levels of stroke survivors are diminished to an extent that impairs functioning and activities of daily living performance. Whil...

    Authors: Hanna Reynolds, Sarah Steinfort, Jane Tillyard, Sarah Ellis, Alan Hayes, Erik D. Hanson, Tissa Wijeratne and Elizabeth H. Skinner

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:132

    Content type: Research article

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  21. The computed tomography angiography (CTA) spot sign is a validated predictor of hematoma expansion and 30-day mortality in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, whether the spot sign predicts worse function...

    Authors: Wen-Che Tseng, Yu-Fen Wang, Tyng-Guey Wang and Ming-Yen Hsiao

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:131

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Bickerstaff’s brainstem encephalitis (BBE) and Fisher syndrome (FS) are immune-mediated diseases associated with anti-ganglioside antibodies, specifically the anti-GQ1b IgG antibody. These two diseases potenti...

    Authors: Hirokazu Natsui, Makoto Takahashi, Kentaro Nanatsue, Sakiko Itaya, Keisuke Abe, Akira Inaba and Satoshi Orimo

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:130

    Content type: Case report

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  23. Although increasing evidence showed the correlations between white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) and cognitive impairment, the relationship between them is still modest. Many researchers began to focus on the...

    Authors: Zhi-gang Min, Hai-rong Shan, Long Xu, Dai-hai Yuan, Xue-xia Sheng, Wen-chao Xie, Ming Zhang, Chen Niu, Tahir Mehmood Shakir and Zhi-hong Cao

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:128

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) is a multimodal perioperative care bundle aimed at the early recovery of patients. Well accepted in gastric and pelvic surgeries, there is minimal evidence in neurosurger...

    Authors: Anirudh Elayat, Sritam S. Jena, Sukdev Nayak, R. N. Sahu and Swagata Tripathy

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:127

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Eptinezumab, an anti-calcitonin gene-related peptide monoclonal antibody recently approved in the United States for preventive treatment of migraine in adults, was found to be well tolerated in double-blind, p...

    Authors: David Kudrow, Roger K. Cady, Brent Allan, Susan M. Pederson, Joe Hirman, Lahar R. Mehta and Barbara A. Schaeffler

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:126

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Lower urinary tract symptoms are one of the most common groups of non-movement symptoms in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Storage symptoms are well-acknowledged, but neurogenic voiding dysfunction cau...

    Authors: Tianying Xing, Jinghong Ma and Tongwen Ou

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:125

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Chronic kidney disease has been identified as a risk factor affecting stroke prognosis. High-grade carotid artery stenosis (CAS) is associated with distal hemodynamic compromise. The association between the es...

    Authors: Chung-Hao Chao, Chia-Lun Wu and Wen-Yi Huang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:124

    Content type: Research article

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  28. To investigate the relationship between the position of bilateral STN-DBS location of active contacts and the clinical efficacy of STN-DBS on motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients.

    Authors: Feng Zhang, Feng Wang, Weiguo Li, Ning Wang, Chunlei Han, Shiying Fan, Peng Li, Lifeng Xu, Jianguo Zhang and Fangang Meng

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:122

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Apathy in patients with epilepsy is associated with a wide range of consequences that reduce the patient’s ability to perform social functions and participate in self-care and rehabilitation programs. Therefor...

    Authors: Abbas Shamsalinia, Mozhgan Moradi, Reza Ebrahimi Rad, Reza Ghadimi, Mansoureh Ashghali Farahani, Reza Masoudi, Leili Rabiei and Fatemeh Ghaffari

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:121

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Intracranial venous hypertension has been associated with a few cases of meningioma secondary to compression of the venous sinus. This is the rare case of small meningioma involving the sigmoid sinus leading t...

    Authors: Koichiro Sumi, Naoki Otani, Fumi Mori, Shun Yamamuro, Hideki Oshima and Atsuo Yoshino

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:119

    Content type: Case report

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  31. Echocardiography is one of the main diagnostic tools for the diagnostic workup of stroke and is already well integrated into the clinical workup. However, the value of transthoracic vs. transesophageal echocar...

    Authors: Marlena Schnieder, Mohammed Chebbok, Michael Didié, Frieder Wolf, Mostafa Badr, Ibrahim Allam, Mathias Bähr, Gerd Hasenfuß, Jan Liman and Marco Robin Schroeter

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:118

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Economic performance may affect public health parameters. This study aimed to determine the time trend of incidence of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) and its association with income, presented by GDP (gros...

    Authors: Wei-Chih Lien, Wei-Ming Wang, Jung-Der Wang and Fuhmei Wang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:117

    Content type: Research article

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  33. The reports of neurological symptoms are increasing in cases with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This multi-center prospective study was conducted to determine the incidence of neurological manifestation...

    Authors: Man Amanat, Nima Rezaei, Mehrdad Roozbeh, Maziar Shojaei, Abbas Tafakhori, Anahita Zoghi, Ilad Alavi Darazam, Mona Salehi, Ehsan Karimialavijeh, Behnam Safarpour Lima, Amir Garakani, Alexander Vaccaro and Mahtab Ramezani

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:116

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Persons with MS (PwMS) often display symptoms of depression and fatigue. Mindfulness-based interventions are known to counteract these symptoms. However, to-date the exact relations between trait mindfulness, ...

    Authors: Torsten Sauder, Philipp M. Keune, Roy Müller, Thomas Schenk, Patrick Oschmann and Sascha Hansen

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:115

    Content type: Research article

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  35. The effect of hypothermia on large hemispheric infarction (LHI) remains controversial. Our study aimed to explore the therapeutic outcomes of decompressive craniectomy (DC) combined with hypothermia on LHI.

    Authors: Linlin Fan, Yingying Su, Yan Zhang, Hong Ye, Weibi Chen and Gang Liu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:114

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Removal of large hypervascular tumors in the lateral ventricle still poses a surgical challenge. These tumors are usually fed from choroidal arteries, and vascular control is typically performed late during th...

    Authors: Yukihiro Yamao, Kazumichi Yoshida, Akira Ishii, Masahiro Tanji, Masakazu Okawa, Yohei Mineharu, Takayuki Kikuchi, Yoshiki Arakawa, Hiroharu Kataoka, Yasushi Takagi and Susumu Miyamoto

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:113

    Content type: Research article

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  37. The retinal and cerebral microvasculature share similar embryological origins and physiological characteristics. Improved imaging technologies provide opportunistic non-invasive assessment of retinal microvasc...

    Authors: R. A. O’Neill, A. P. Maxwell, E. N. Paterson, F. Kee, I. Young, R. E. Hogg, S. Cruise, S. Murphy, B. McGuinness and G. J. McKay

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:112

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Global aphasia without hemiparesis (GAWH) is a rare stroke syndrome characterized by the dissociation of motor and language functions. Here, we present a case of GAWH with the patient later regaining speech fl...

    Authors: Ya-Chi Chuang, Chuan-Ching Liu, I-Ching Yu, Yu-Lin Tsai and Shin-Tsu Chang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:111

    Content type: Case report

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  39. Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) is an inflammatory disorder with unclear causes. Paraneoplastic etiology may be a cause. We report a cas...

    Authors: Yilun Deng, Bi Zhao, Bing Wei, Shihong Zhang and Ming Liu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:110

    Content type: Case report

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  40. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), a group of autoimmune neurological diseases, involve the optic nerve, spinal cord, and brain. Meningitis is rarely reported as the primary clinical manifestatio...

    Authors: Chenyang Zhang, Kang Zhang, Bing Chen, Jiao Yin, Miaomiao Dong, Yixin Qin and Xiao Yang

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:109

    Content type: Case report

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  41. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ANGPTL4 gene and the SNP–SNP interactions on atherosclerotic ischemic stroke (IS) risk.

    Authors: Chaoxiong Shen, Daofeng Fan, Huajun Fu, Chong Zheng, Yinjuan Chen and Zhizhou Hu

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:108

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is usually a benign, yet underdiagnosed clinical condition associated with subacute to acute neurological manifestations primarily affecting white matter. PR...

    Authors: Abbas Alshami, Asseel Al-Bayati, Steven Douedi, Mohammad A. Hossain, Swapnil Patel and Arif Asif

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:107

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Collagen VI-related dystrophies are a subtype of congenital muscular dystrophy caused by pathogenic variants in COL6A1, COL6A2 or COL6A3 genes affecting skeletal muscles and connective tissue. The clinical phenot...

    Authors: Nirmala Dushyanthi Sirisena, U. M. Jayami Eshana Samaranayake, Osorio Lopes Abath Neto, A. Reghan Foley, B. A. P. Sajeewani Pathirana, Nilaksha Neththikumara, C. Sampath Paththinige, Pyara Rathnayake, Sandra Donkervoort, Carsten G. Bönnemann and Vajira H. W. Dissanayake

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:105

    Content type: Case report

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  44. Clopidogrel is an antiplatelet drug used in the treatment of ischemic stroke. Safety and efficacy of clopidogrel has been confirmed in CAPRIE, PRoFESS trials. However, these studies focused on patients aged le...

    Authors: Changqing Li, Weihua Jia, Jian Li, Fangfei Li, Jing Ma and Lichun Zhou

    Citation: BMC Neurology 2021 21:104

    Content type: Research article

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